196 Presidential Memoranda issued by William J. Clinton

Pursuant to section 2 (c) (1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601 (c) (1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest to make up to $22 million from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund available to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and consistent with title IX of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby waive the application of the restrictions contained in sections 101 and 102 of the Arms Export Control Act, as … [read more]

Full of natural splendor and rich in human history, the majestic grasslands and stark ridges in the Carrizo Plain National Monument contain exceptional objects of scientific and historic interest. Since the mid-1800s, large portions of the grasslands that once spanned the entire four hundred mile expanse of California's nearby San … [read more]

Pompeys Pillar National Monument is a massive sandstone outcrop that rises from an almost two-acre base on the banks of the Yellowstone River 150 feet toward Montana's Big Sky, east of Billings. The monument's premier location at a natural ford in the Yellowstone River, and its geologic distinction as the … [read more]

Buck Island Reef National Monument was established on December 28, 1961 (Presidential Proclamation 3443), just north of St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, for the purpose of protecting Buck Island and its adjoining shoals, rocks, and undersea coral reef formations. Considered one of the finest marine gardens in the … [read more]

The Minidoka Internment National Monument is a unique and irreplaceable historical resource which protects historic structures and objects that provide opportunities for public education and interpretation of an important chapter in American history—the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed … [read more]

The Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument contains a spectacular array of biological, geological, and historical objects of interest. From Fort Benton upstream into the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, the monument spans 149 miles of the Upper Missouri River, the adjacent Breaks country, and portions of Arrow Creek, … [read more]

The Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, in the submerged lands off the island of St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands, contains all the elements of a Caribbean tropical marine ecosystem. This designation furthers the protection of the scientific objects included in the Virgin Islands National Park, created in … [read more]

Located on the Pajarito Plateau in north central New Mexico, the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument is a remarkable outdoor laboratory, offering an opportunity to observe, study, and experience the geologic processes that shape natural landscapes, as well as other cultural and biological objects of interest. The area is rich … [read more]

The Sonoran Desert National Monument is a magnificent example of untrammeled Sonoran desert landscape. The area encompasses a functioning desert ecosystem with an extraordinary array of biological, scientific, and historic resources. The most biologically diverse of the North American deserts, the monument consists of distinct mountain ranges separated by wide … [read more]

Each year we commemorate the anniversary of the religious freedom statute adopted by the Virginia legislature in 1786. This statute, which reflects the wisdom and foresight of its author, Thomas Jefferson, and its cosponsor, James Madison, became the model for the First Amendment to our Constitution, and it has had … [read more]

Seventy-two years ago, Martin Luther King, Jr., was born into a sharply divided Nation, a place where the color of a child's skin too often determined that child's destiny. America was a place where segregation and discrimination put limits on a black child's dreams, opportunities, and future. Dr. King led … [read more]

Pursuant to section 572(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, (the ``Act'') (Public Law 106-429), I hereby certify that: (1) the parties to the Agreed Framework have taken and continue to take demonstrable steps to implement the Joint Declaration on Denuclearization of the Korean … [read more]

Pursuant to section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (Public Law 106-429), I hereby certify that withholding from international financial institutions and other international organizations and programs funds appropriated or otherwise made available pursuant to that Act is contrary to the national interest. … [read more]

On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On January 8, 1986, by Executive … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, including section 1511 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (Public Law 103-160), I hereby certify to the Congress that I have determined that the waiver of the application of subsections 1511(b) and … [read more]

1. The Republic of Georgia (Georgia) has made progress, since its emergence from communism, toward democratic rule and the creation of a free market economy. Georgia has also made considerable progress toward respecting fundamental human rights consistent with the objectives of title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $33 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet the unexpected … [read more]

In 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright were poised on the brink of one of history's most remarkable advances. For years, the two brothers had been mesmerized by the principle of flight and had studied birds to understand how these fascinating creatures rose, fell, and darted through the air. The Wright … [read more]

1. Section 506A(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(b)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to provide duty-free treatment under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a) (1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318 (a) (1) (A) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that: (1) an unforeseen emergency exists that requires immediate military assistance to UNAMSIL, countries currently or in the future … [read more]

On December 15, 1791, the Bill of Rights was ratified. A century and a half later, on December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Though separated by more than 150 years, these two documents are not dusty relics of a distant past—the … [read more]

While the bitter winds of war raged across much of the world on the morning of December 7, 1941, the United States was still at peace. At Pearl Harbor, the 130 vessels of the U.S. Pacific Fleet lay tranquil in the Sunday silence. Then, at 7:55 a.m., that silence was … [read more]

Driving is an integral part of American culture and daily living; but it is also a privilege that carries great responsibility. To protect ourselves and others, we must always be safe, sober, and drug-free behind the wheel. As a Nation, we have made steady progress in reducing alcohol-related deaths through … [read more]

1. Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-200) (the “Act”) modifies the tariff treatment of certain imported wool articles. 2. Section 501(a)(1) of the Act amends the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to create a new heading, 9902.51.11, for imports of … [read more]

As the global community observes the 13th annual World AIDS Day, we remember with sorrow our friends, loved ones, neighbors, and colleagues who have lost their lives to AIDS, and we reaffirm our shared commitment to carry on the fight until our battle against this devastating disease is won. We … [read more]

Our families are perhaps the strongest influence in our lives. Anyone who grows up in a strong, nurturing family, grounded in the values of love and responsibility, will have a distinct advantage in achieving the most important tasks of adulthood—living fully, working productively, contributing to society, and forming one's own … [read more]

Since our earliest days as a Nation, farmers have tilled the rich soil of this great land, feeding their families, our country, and people around the world. While America has changed from an agricultural to an industrial society, the American farm has remained a vital thread in the fabric of … [read more]

We have much to be grateful for this Thanksgiving Day. Our Nation is free, prosperous, and at peace. The remarkable growth in human knowledge and technological innovation offers real hope for defeating the age-old enemies of humanity: poverty, famine, and disease. Our dynamic economy continues to generate millions of new … [read more]

In the 24 years since the American Cancer Society organized the first Great American Smokeout, our country has made encouraging progress in our battle to reduce the devastating human and economic toll that tobacco products take on our society. Today we have a more comprehensive understanding of the dangers of … [read more]

As we look forward to Thanksgiving, our annual celebration of America's great bounty, it is appropriate to observe America Recycles Day and focus on how to preserve that bounty for the benefit of future generations. Recycling waste and purchasing products made from recycled materials are among the easiest and most … [read more]

Amid the sandstone slickrock, brilliant cliffs, and rolling sandy plateaus of the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument lie outstanding objects of scientific and historic interest. Despite its arid climate and rugged isolation, the monument contains a wide variety of biological objects and has a long and rich human history. Full of … [read more]

The Craters of the Moon National Monument was established on May 2, 1924 (Presidential Proclamation 1694), for the purpose of protecting the unusual landscape of the Craters of the Moon lava field. This “lunar” landscape was thought to resemble that of the Moon and was described in the Proclamation as … [read more]

American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are a special part of the tapestry of our Nation's history. As keepers of a rich and ancient cultural heritage, Native Americans share with all of us the beauty of their art, the power of their songs, and the grace of their people. … [read more]

Today we live in a global community, where all countries must work as partners to promote peace and prosperity and to resolve international problems. One of the surest ways to develop and strengthen such partnerships is through international education programs. These programs enable students to learn other languages, experience other … [read more]

On this day, in ceremonies across our Nation and around the world, Americans gather to pay tribute to our veterans. In community centers and church halls, at VFW posts and U.S. embassies, in quiet cemeteries and on battlefields fallen silent, we pause to honor the brave men and women of … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency to deal with the threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the situation in Iran. Since that time, notices of the continuation of this national emergency have been … [read more]

Families are the cornerstone of our Nation. Yet, today, tens of thousands of America's children are living within our child welfare system, without the sustained love and care of permanent families. For many of these children, often shuttled from one living situation to another, adoption opens the door to loving … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, I declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means … [read more]

All Americans owe a debt of gratitude to the family caregivers among us—the generous, compassionate individuals who daily face the challenge of caring for loved ones who are frail, chronically ill, or living with disabilities that restrict their independence. These everyday heroes, living quietly among us in families and communities … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 2002(f) of H.R. 3244, “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000,” (approved October 28, 2000), I hereby determine that subsection (f)(1) of section 1610 of title 28, … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, I declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Sudan. By Executive Order 13067, I imposed trade … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy Toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: 1) progress toward democratization in … [read more]

Fifty-five years ago, the United States played a leading role in founding the United Nations, and the treaty creating the U.N. was signed in San Francisco. Today, we are proud to serve as host country for the United Nations, whose headquarters in New York City stands as an enduring symbol … [read more]

Every day in America, approximately 10 children are shot and killed. Children 15 years old and younger are murdered with firearms at a higher rate in this country than in 25 other industrialized countries combined. These tragedies are an urgent reminder that we must not waver in our national commitment … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, I declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia, and the unparalleled violence, corruption, and … [read more]

The term “character” is derived from an ancient Greek word meaning “to inscribe,” reflecting the conviction that character is not innate, but rather is instilled through the influence, example, and guidance of the people around us. One of our greatest responsibilities as adults and citizens, therefore, is to ensure that … [read more]

Last month at the Olympic Games in Sydney, American runner Marla Runyan made history in the women's 1500-meter race. She was not considered a favorite in the event and won no medals, placing ninth in the final competition. But as the first legally blind athlete ever to qualify for and … [read more]

In the early years of the 20th century, President Theodore Roosevelt challenged his fellow citizens to begin the vital task of conserving the precious natural resources with which America has been so abundantly blessed. As part of his notable conservation achievements, he consolidated 65 million acres of Federal forest reserves … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to extend the display of the flag at half-staff as a mark of respect for those who died on the United States Ship … [read more]

On October 12, 1900, the United States Navy commissioned its first submarine, the U.S.S. Holland . Few people realized that this vessel would be the first in a long line of innovative and technically sophisticated ships that would launch a new era in our national defense. Although early-20th century submarines … [read more]

As a mark of respect for those who died on the United States Ship COLE, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall … [read more]

Eleanor Roosevelt was one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, and her life spanned some of the most dramatic and challenging events in modern history. Steadfast in her commitment to America, democracy, and a world that honored human rights, she told Americans across the Nation, “We are … [read more]

In light of the longstanding political and humanitarian crisis in Sierra Leone, I have determined that it is in the interests of the United States to restrict the entry into the United States as immigrants and nonimmigrants of certain foreign nationals who plan, engage in, or benefit from activities that … [read more]

Each year on October 11, we solemnly pause to honor the life and achievements of Casimir Pulaski, a true hero whose devotion to liberty has inspired the gratitude of the American people for more than 200 years. Born to wealth and privilege in Poland, Pulaski sacrificed both by joining his … [read more]

During this first year of the new century, the American people have devoted time and thought to the people and events of our Nation's past so that we might better prepare for the challenges of the future. While Christopher Columbus' epic voyage took place almost three centuries before the founding … [read more]

Each year, fire takes a heavy toll on the lives and property of thousands of Americans. Approximately 100 firefighters and 4,000 civilians die in fires annually; some 25,000 civilians sustain injuries and an average of $8 billion in property is destroyed. Last year alone, America's fire departments responded to almost … [read more]

Each weekday afternoon in America, the ringing of school bells signals not just the end of the school day, but also the beginning of a period when 8 to 15 million of our children are home alone. These so-called “latchkey” children can be found in every American community, whether urban, … [read more]

Children hold a special place in our lives, and raising healthy, happy children is the greatest success any parent can hope to achieve; it should also be an important goal of every member of society, because children are profoundly influenced by the people and environment around them. The strongest influence, … [read more]

This year, as we mark the beginning of a new millennium, we also celebrate the 1000th anniversary of Europe's first contact with North America. At the turn of the last millennium, the legendary explorer Leif Erikson—son of Iceland, grandson of Norway—sailed across the cold waters of the Atlantic from his … [read more]

One of the best ways we can move forward as a society is to meet our obligations to our children. President Harry Truman recognized this profound responsibility when he signed the National School Lunch Act into law in 1946. The significance of this legislation went beyond the daily meal that … [read more]

As we celebrate German-American Day and the many contributions that German Americans have made to our national community, we also mark the 10th anniversary of German unification. The historic achievements of the last 10 years are all the more remarkable when we remember the dark days of the Cold War, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 610(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of the Act that: be transferred to, and consolidated with, funds made available for chapter 3 of part I … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Title III (Foreign Military Financing) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, as enacted in Public Law 106-113 (Title III), I hereby direct the drawdown of defense articles … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultation with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2001 … [read more]

I find that it is in the paramount interest of the United States to exempt the United States Air Force's operating location near Groom Lake, Nevada, (the subject of litigation in Frost v. Perry (D. Nev. CV-S-94-714-PMP)), from any applicable requirement for the disclosure to unauthorized persons of classified information … [read more]

Domestic violence transcends all ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic boundaries. Its perpetrators abuse their victims both physically and mentally, and the effects of their attacks are far-reaching—weakening the very core of our communities. Domestic violence is particularly devastating because it so often occurs in the privacy of the home, which is … [read more]

1. Section 211 of the United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (Title II of Public Law 106-200) (CBTPA), which amends section 213(b) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) (19 U.S.C. 2703(b)), provides that certain preferential tariff treatment may be provided to eligible articles that are the product of … [read more]

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and the 10th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). These two landmark civil rights laws have opened the doors of opportunity for people with disabilities and increased our awareness of the enormous contributions that Americans … [read more]

1. Section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA) amends Title V of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”), to provide, in new section 506A(a) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)), that the President is authorized to designate countries listed in … [read more]

As we once again observe National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we can be heartened by the progress we have made in the battle against breast cancer. Today we have a better under standing of what causes the disease, and advances in research are leading to improvements in detection and diagnosis … [read more]

As parents and as concerned citizens, we have a profound responsibility to ensure that America's children not only receive a healthy start in life, but also that they continue to grow and develop in a nurturing environment where they have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Recognizing the importance … [read more]

As a Nation, we are growing older, and so is our workforce. Today, there are 49 million workers in America aged 45 years or older—approximately 35 percent of America's labor force—and by 2008, that number will grow to 62 million, or about 40 percent of the workforce. One in four … [read more]

America's Armed Forces have stood watch over our freedom for more than two centuries. They have held posts on lonely ridges, spent long days and nights at sea, and faced danger in the skies. They have sacrificed their youth, their time, and even their lives to sustain the foundation on … [read more]

On September 26, 1993, by Executive Order 12865, I declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), prohibiting the sale or … [read more]

American society today embraces a remarkable breadth of cultures, and Hispanics are an integral part of this diversity. The Hispanic American community is a collage of distinct groups, including people with roots in Central and South America, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Spain. Hispanics have been an important part of the … [read more]

Rooted in the segregated South of more than a century ago, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) for decades were the sole source of higher education for African Americans. Generations of African American educators, physicians, lawyers, scientists, and other professionals found at HBCUs the knowledge, experience, and encouragement they needed … [read more]

Throughout history, America's farmers and ranchers have worked our land with skill, energy, and determination. They have endured floods and droughts, survived bitter winters and scorching summers, seen crops devastated by insects and livestock lost to disease. Through hard times and good times alike they have labored, making American agriculture … [read more]

In the spring of 1787, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and other prominent leaders gathered once again in Philadelphia to offset a looming crisis in the life of our young democracy. The Articles of Confederation, a blueprint for government that they had hammered out in the Second … [read more]

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the onset of the Korean War and the 25th anniversary of the end of the war in Vietnam. For many Americans, these milestones bring difficult memories; for former prisoners of war and the families of those still missing in action, these anniversaries evoke … [read more]

Ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest cancers affecting American women today. This year alone, 14,000 women will die from ovarian cancer, and more than 23,000 will be diagnosed with the disease. While ovarian cancer is very treatable when detected early, currently 75 percent of new cases are not diagnosed … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination made by me on September 10, 1999 (64 Fed. Reg. 51885), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2000. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions and authorities conferred on the President under the Iran Nonproliferation Act … [read more]

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were only 3 million older Americans; today, at the dawn of the 21st century, there are 34 million older citizens in our Nation, and we anticipate that, by the year 2050, one in four Americans will be 65 or older. We can … [read more]

For America's students, the new school year is a time for learning lessons, making friends, and setting goals. For America's parents, it is a time to focus on the role education plays in their children's lives and future. And for our Nation, it is a time to strengthen our efforts … [read more]

1. Pursuant to sections 501 and 502 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461 and 2462), the President is authorized to designate countries as beneficiary developing countries for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 2. Pursuant to sections 501 and 502 … [read more]

In March of 1776, 4 months before the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Abigail Adams sent a letter to her husband John in Philadelphia, where he was participating in the Second Continental Congress. “...[I]n the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to … [read more]

Today, America is enjoying the longest economic expansion in our history, with 22 million new jobs created since my Administration took office in 1993 and the lowest unemployment and inflation rates in more than 30 years. The American people are looking to the future with renewed hope and optimism, eager … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 3201(a)(4) of the FY 2000 Emergency Supplemental Act (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in the national security interest of the United States to furnish assistance made available under the Act to the Government of Colombia without regard to … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions vested in me by section 646 of the ORBIT Act (Public Law 106-180), relating … [read more]

On August 19, 1994, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 19, 1994, must continue in effect beyond August 19, … [read more]

Twenty-five years ago today, in a world marked by brutal divisions and ideological conflict, the United States joined 33 European nations and Canada in signing the Helsinki Final Act. That watershed event established the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and affirmed an international commitment to respect “freedom … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(1)(A) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that: I therefore direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services from the Department of … [read more]

On August 2, 1990, by Executive Order 12722, President Bush declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iraq. By Executive Orders 12722 of August … [read more]

Parents play a crucial role in shaping our lives and the life of our Nation. They nurture us as infants when we are unable to help ourselves, protect us as toddlers when we wander into trouble, encourage us as adolescents when we dream about the future, and guide us as … [read more]

When President Eisenhower signed the first Captive Nations Week Proclamation in 1959, the fate of freedom around the world was still far from certain. While the United States and our Allies had defeated Adolf Hitler and the Axis Powers in World War II, a partitioned Berlin stood as a bleak … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the United States of America and the Republic of Turkey Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the Agreement will promote, and will not … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the responsibility of the President, under section 606 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 (Public Law 106-113), to submit … [read more]

Each year from 1862 through 1864, President Abraham Lincoln and his family left the White House to take up residence during the warm weather months at Anderson Cottage, a home in northwest Washington, D.C., on the grounds of a site then known as the Soldiers' Home. It is estimated that … [read more]

Pursuant to section 576(c) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, as enacted in Public Law 106-113, (the “Act”), I hereby certify that: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 576(d) of the Act, I hereby determine that it is vital to the … [read more]

1. Section 502(c)(7) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2462(c)(7)), provides that, in determining whether to designate any country a beneficiary developing country under this section, the President shall take into account whether that country has taken or is taking steps to afford … [read more]

The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 10 years ago this month signaled a transformation in our Nation's public policies toward people with disabilities. America is now a dramatically different—and better—country because of the ADA. In the last 10 years, we have worked hard to eliminate harmful stereotypes … [read more]

On July 4, 1999, I issued Executive Order 13129, “Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions with the Taliban,” to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by the actions and policies of the Taliban in Afghanistan. The order blocks … [read more]

1. Albania has made progress, since its emergence from communism, toward democratic rule and the creation of a market economy. Further, I have found Albania to be in full compliance with the freedom of emigration requirements under title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by section 1232 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act … [read more]

1. Pursuant to sections 501, 503(a)(1)(A), and 503(c)(1) of title V of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461, 2463(a)(1)(A), and 2463(c)(1)), the President may designate or withdraw designation of specified articles provided for in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) … [read more]

Fifty years ago, on June 25, 1950, armed forces from North Korea shattered the peace in the Land of the Morning Calm as they crossed the 38th Parallel and launched an invasion of South Korea. The communist forces advanced rapidly and, at the outset, appeared close to easy victory. President … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Each year, Americans set aside the third Sunday in June to pay special tribute to our fathers, who for many of us are the first and most important men in our lives. The role of father is a unique blessing and a profound responsibility, one at the very heart of … [read more]

On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress authorized the enlistment of ten companies of riflemen in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia as the first units of the Continental Army. Few could have foreseen that this small band of citizen-soldiers would lay the cornerstone of freedom for our Nation and the … [read more]

Our long national journey has brought the United States safely to a new century and to a position of unprecedented leadership in the world. Throughout that journey, one symbol has endured as a badge of honor for every American and a beacon of hope for the oppressed: the flag of … [read more]

The Hanford Reach National Monument is a unique and biologically diverse landscape, encompassing an array of scientific and historic objects. This magnificent area contains an irreplaceable natural and historic legacy, preserved by unusual circumstances. Maintained as a buffer area in a Federal reservation conducting nuclear weapons development and, more recently, … [read more]

The landscape of the Ironwood Forest National Monument is swathed with the rich, drought-adapted vegetation of the Sonoran Desert. The monument contains objects of scientific interest throughout its desert environment. Stands of ironwood, palo verde, and saguaro blanket the monument floor beneath the rugged mountain ranges, including the Silver Bell … [read more]

With towering fir forests, sunlit oak groves, wildflower-strewn meadows, and steep canyons, the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument is an ecological wonder, with biological diversity unmatched in the Cascade Range. This rich enclave of natural resources is a biological crossroads—the interface of the Cascade, Klamath, and Siskiyou ecoregions, in an area of … [read more]

Containing the highest known density of archaeological sites in the Nation, the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument holds evidence of cultures and traditions spanning thousands of years. This area, with its intertwined natural and cultural resources, is a rugged landscape, a quality that greatly contributes to the protection of … [read more]

Pursuant to subsection 402(d)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Act”), 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), I determine that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by subsection 402(c) of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of section 402 of the Act. I further determine that the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (the “Act”), I have determined, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by section 402(c) of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President, including under section 10(d)(1) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287 et seq .) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that the furnishing, without regard to section 10(a) of the Act, of assistance covered by section … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (the “Act”), I have determined, pursuant to subsection 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by subsection 402(c) of the … [read more]

Gay and lesbian Americans have made important and lasting contributions to our Nation in every field of endeavor. Too often, however, gays and lesbians face prejudice and discrimination; too many have had to hide or deny their sexual orientation in order to keep their jobs or to live safely in … [read more]

1. On May 30, 1998, pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2253), I issued Proclamation 7103, which imposed quantitative limitations on certain wheat gluten imports provided for in subheadings 1109.00.10 and 1109.00.90 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the … [read more]

Fifty-five years ago this month, the torch of freedom burned bright in Europe once again as Nazi Germany surrendered to the Allied Forces. Four months later, with the defeat of Imperial Japan, World War II—history's bloodiest and most destructive conflict—finally came to an end. That war's unprecedented threat to world … [read more]

For many Americans, Memorial Day has come to signify the beginning of summer, the opening of the neighborhood pool, and a time for picnics and barbecues. In the midst of these festivities, however, we can too often overlook the holiday's true meaning. Memorial Day was first observed in 1868 in … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared on May 30, 1992, with respect to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), as expanded on October 25, 1994, in response to the actions and … [read more]

Americans have always looked to the sea as a source of prosperity and security. Bounded by two oceans and the Gulf of Mexico, with the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence Seaway, scores of harbors, ports, and inlets, and thousands of miles of inland river shorelines, our Nation has been blessed … [read more]

The men and women who own and operate our Nation's 25 million small businesses have made, and continue to make, an indispensable contribution to America's economic strength and success. These entrepreneurs possess many of the characteristics that have always defined the American spirit: a fierce independence, an extraordinary work ethic, … [read more]

The prosperity the United States enjoys today is due, in no small part, to our strong trading relationships with other nations. The World Trade Organization, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and 270 other agreements have helped us to open new markets for U.S. products and services, create thousands of … [read more]

Living in a country bordered by oceans and blessed with abundant lakes and rivers, Americans have made recreational boating one of our Nation's most popular pastimes. Each year, more than 74 million Americans take to the water with family and friends to relax and enjoy the beauty of the natural … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, I issued Executive Order 13047, effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on May 21, 1997, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale … [read more]

Throughout the past century, America's national transportation system has played a crucial role in strengthening our economy, protecting our safety, and improving the quality of life for all Americans. Interconnecting networks of railroads, ports, and waterways have transported millions of passengers and billions of dollars' worth of freight. Our national … [read more]

From our earliest days as a Nation, America has been blessed with citizens of courage and character who have dedicated their lives to keeping the peace in our communities. Five years after the creation of the U.S. Marshals Service in 1789, U.S. Marshal Robert Forsyth was shot and killed in … [read more]

Long before President Kennedy signed into law the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women had proved their ability to contribute to America's labor market. During World War II, when labor shortages offered women an unprecedented opportunity to work outside the home, women excelled at jobs traditionally reserved for men. Yet, … [read more]

We are living in a new century and a new age, where the revolution in communications technology is changing almost every aspect of human experience. But even in this new era of global connections, there is perhaps no more powerful link than the love between mother and child. That bond … [read more]

At its core, science is an international endeavor. The fundamental workings of nature—the function of a gene, the quantum behavior of matter and energy, the chemistry of the atmosphere—are not the sole province of any one nation. At the same time, many of the greatest challenges our Nation faces are … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, Americans have come before God with humble hearts to ask forgiveness, to seek wisdom, and to offer thanksgiving and praise. The framers of our democracy, on a quest for freedom and equality, were fueled by an abiding faith in a just and loving God, to whom … [read more]

For centuries, Jews from every corner of the globe have come to America seeking the right to worship in freedom and to pursue their individual hopes and dreams in peace. For many, the journey was a desperate flight from oppression and persecution to a new life in a new country. … [read more]

Older Americans are a treasured link to our past. With courage, hard work, and unwavering devotion to family, community, and country, our older citizens helped to make the 20th century the American century. They preserved our freedom through the crucible of World War II; opposed Communist aggression in Korea and … [read more]

In the Declaration of Independence and in the Constitution, our Nation's founders first articulated the enduring ideals that have sustained our democracy—freedom, self-determination, justice, and equality. Each year we set aside this special day to reaffirm our allegiance to those ideals and to our beloved country. The power and promise … [read more]

The freedom of America's citizens is sustained by American law. In crafting the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, our Nation's founders wisely understood that liberty and law are equally important to ensuring human rights and preserving human dignity. Law without freedom becomes tyranny; freedom without law becomes chaos. The … [read more]

Providing our children the high-quality education they need to succeed is one of the greatest challenges we face as a Nation, and helping communities establish public charter schools is one of the best ways we can meet that challenge. Charter schools—public schools that are started by parents, educators, and communities … [read more]

Over the last two centuries, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have contributed immeasurably to the richness of our dynamic, multicultural society. Whether recent immigrants or descendants of families who have been here for generations, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders embody many of our Nation's core values, including devotion to family, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under section 538(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, as contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-113), I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests … [read more]

The rich and varied landscape of the Giant Sequoia National Monument holds a diverse array of scientific and historic resources. Magnificent groves of towering giant sequoias, the world's largest trees, are interspersed within a great belt of coniferous forest, jeweled with mountain meadows. Bold granitic domes, spires, and plunging gorges … [read more]

The Library of Congress is truly America's library. Established on April 24, 1800, as the Congress prepared to transfer the Federal Government from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C., it is our country's oldest Federal cultural institution. With Thomas Jefferson's private library—acquired in 1815—as its core, the Library of Congress has reflected … [read more]

Organ and tissue transplantation offers us the extraordinary opportunity to share with others one of our most precious gifts—the gift of life. By donating tissues and organs, living donors and the families who have lost loved ones are rewarded with the knowledge that they have saved and enhanced many lives. … [read more]

Children face many challenges in today's complex society. Peer pressure to abuse drugs and alcohol; negative influences in films, music, television, and videos; school violence; gang activities; fear and low self-esteem—any or all of these pressures can lead young people to make unwise choices that can jeopardize their future and … [read more]

Every year, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) researches the safety of more than 15,000 types of products used by the American people and secures the recall of defective or potentially dangerous products. Last year alone, the CPSC negotiated almost 300 recalls involving more than 74 million individual consumer products … [read more]

We are fortunate to live in an era when the explosive growth of technology has put at our fingertips an extraordinary array of information. But even during this technological revolution, one of America's richest and most fascinating educational resources is also among its oldest: our national park system. Our national … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy Toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the FY 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: 1) progress toward democratization in Burma; … [read more]

This week marks the 20th anniversary of National Crime Victims' Rights Week. Over the past two decades, we have made enormous progress in our efforts to build safer communities and to reshape our criminal justice system so that it better protects victims' rights and responds more compassionately to their needs. … [read more]

This year on Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we celebrate the springtime of a new century in which the fundamental ideals of democracy and human rights are blossoming across our hemisphere. We stand at the threshold of a new era of economic development and prosperity with a … [read more]

As we stand at the dawn of a new century, we reflect with pride on all that our Nation has accomplished in the 224 years since we first declared our independence. Today we enjoy unprecedented peace and prosperity, and, as it has for generations, America shines as a beacon of … [read more]

Each year our Nation is blessed by the service of more than 100 million Americans who take time out of their busy lives to reach out to those in need. Volunteers come from every age group and walk of life, yet they share a common conviction: that by giving of … [read more]

Children are our link to the future and our hope for a better tomorrow. Within a few short years, we will look to today's children for the vision, strength, creativity, and leadership to guide our Nation through the challenges of this new century. If they are to grow into healthy, … [read more]

Since the discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953, we have learned much about the relationship between genetics and cancer, and researchers have begun to isolate and study genes whose alteration and dysfunction may cause the disease. In the last decade, increased understanding of cancer and growing public awareness … [read more]

Every 10 years, as mandated by our Constitution, all persons living in the United States are called upon to participate in the census. As the foremost method of gathering information about our Nation, the census plays a crucial role in helping us to maintain our democratic form of government. An … [read more]

Two thousand five hundred years ago, the birth of democracy in Greece ushered in one of the true golden ages of Western civilization. The flowering of political, social, and artistic innovation in Greece served as the source of many of our most treasured gifts—the philosophy of Plato and Socrates, the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, including under title IX of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby waive the sanctions contained in sections 101 and 102 of the Arms Export Control Act, section 620E(e) of the Foreign … [read more]

As we welcome a new millennium, America stands at a unique moment in time. We can look back over the past century, where we experienced profound advances in science, medicine, and technology that fundamentally altered the world in which we live. At the same time, we can look ahead to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(2) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory and resources of … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 490(b)(1)(A) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine and certify that the following major illicit drug producing and/or major illicit drug transit countries (and certain jurisdictions) have cooperated fully with the United States, … [read more]

Children face many dangers growing up, including some which we cannot foresee or prevent. But the danger of accidental poisoning from medicines, household chemicals, or other substances used routinely in the home is something we can—and must—stop. Each year during National Poison Prevention Week, we assess our progress in saving … [read more]

After the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt asked his fellow Americans to respond by contributing to the American Red Cross, “the only organization chartered and authorized by Congress to act at times of great national calamity.” Almost a century later, the American Red Cross continues to … [read more]

By authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by section 2705(d) of Division G of the Omnibus … [read more]

More than two centuries ago, our founders envisioned a new Nation, a land free from tyranny and filled with opportunity, prosperity, and liberty for all. Many Irish people, faced with severe hardship in their homeland, embraced the dream of a more promising future and left behind Ireland's shores, their families, … [read more]

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Estimates show that physicians will diagnose approximately 130,000 new cases of colorectal cancer this year, and, of those persons diagnosed, more than 56,000 will die from the disease. Colorectal cancer takes such a deadly toll because … [read more]

Last spring, three women astronauts paused during a shuttle mission to pay homage to the past. Thousands of miles into space, floating above the floor of the shuttle, they raised a women's suffrage banner and posed for a picture. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, a participant in this special tribute and a … [read more]

Pursuant to section 576(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000 (the Act), as enacted in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-113), I hereby certify that: (1) the parties to the Agreed Framework have taken and continue to take demonstrable steps to … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, I declared a national emergency to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Government of Cuba of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and services to the Economic Community of West African States will strengthen the … [read more]

As provided under section 610 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000, as contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY 2000 (Public Law 106-113), I hereby determine, based on all information available to the United States Government, that the Government … [read more]

Section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 453), provides that male citizens of the United States and other male persons residing in the United States who are between the ages of 18 and 26, except those exempted by sections 3 and 6(a) of the … [read more]

1. On December 22, 1999, the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) transmitted to the President an affirmative determination in its investigation under section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2252), with respect to imports of certain circular welded carbon quality line … [read more]

On December 22, 1999, the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) submitted a report to me that contained: (1) a determination pursuant to section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”), that certain circular welded carbon quality line pipe (line pipe) is being imported into … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President, including under sections 10(d)(1) and 10(a)(2)(B) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287 et seq .) (the “Act”), I hereby: (a) determine that the deployment of United States military forces to support East Timor's transition … [read more]

1. On July 12, 1999, the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) transmitted to the President a report on its investigation under section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2252), with respect to imports of certain steel wire rod provided for in … [read more]

On July 12, 1999, the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) submitted a report to me of its investigation under section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”), with respect to imports of steel wire rod. The USITC commissioners were equally divided in their determinations … [read more]

Americans have long enjoyed shopping from the comfort of their homes. Door-to-door sales and mail-order catalogs have given consumers the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of products while saving precious time for family and personal interests. As we move into the digital age, the Internet and other information … [read more]

Pursuant to subsection 517(b) in title V of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-113), I hereby determine that it is in the national security interest of the United States to make available funds appropriated under the heading “Assistance for the Independent States … [read more]

Pursuant to section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2000, as Contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY 2000 (Public Law 106-113), I hereby certify that withholding from international financial institutions and other international organizations and programs funds appropriated or otherwise made available … [read more]

In the past half century, our Nation has made enormous progress in the fight against heart disease. Through careful research, scientists and doctors have identified key factors—including smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity—that increase the risk of heart disease. Working with dedication and determination, … [read more]

Each year during National African American History Month, as we explore the history and culture of African Americans, we discover anew a treasure of stories about the triumph of the human spirit, inspiring accounts of everyday people rising above the indignities imposed by prejudice. These stories are not only an … [read more]

By separate directive I have addressed the resumption of Navy and Marine Corps training on the island of Vieques. 1. Provided that training opportunity has resumed and is continuously available on Vieques, then within 90 days of this directive, I direct the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to request … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me and in order to further the interests of national security and to address the legitimate interests and concerns of the residents of Vieques and the people of Puerto Rico, I hereby direct the following: 1. The future of Navy training on Vieques … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 112(r)(7)(H) of the Clean Air Act (“Act”) (42 U.S.C. 7412(r)(7)(H)), as added by section 3 of the Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act (Public Law … [read more]

As we stand at the dawn of a new century, we recognize the enormous potential that biotechnology holds for improving the quality of life here in the United States and around the world. These technologies, which draw on our understanding of the life sciences to develop products and solve problems, … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, I declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists that disrupt the Middle East peace process. … [read more]

On January 16, 1786, the Virginia legislature enacted a law whose impact is still felt around the world today. Authored by Thomas Jefferson and introduced by James Madison, this act affirmed religious freedom as one of the “natural rights of mankind” and pledged that none would “suffer on account of … [read more]

Just this month, thousands of Americans gathered at the Lincoln Memorial to welcome a new year, a new century, and a new millennium. There—where 37 years ago Martin Luther King, Jr., so eloquently voiced his dream for America's future—we pledged not only to keep Dr. King's dream alive, but also … [read more]

The Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument is a vast, biologically diverse, impressive landscape encompassing an array of scientific and historic objects. This remote area of open, undeveloped spaces and engaging scenery is located on the edge of one of the most beautiful places on earth, the Grand Canyon. Despite the hardships … [read more]

The windswept, grassy mesas and formidable canyons of Agua Fria National Monument embrace an extraordinary array of scientific and historic resources. The ancient ruins within the monument, with their breathtaking vistas and spectacular petroglyphs, provide a link to the past, offering insights into the lives of the peoples who once … [read more]

Pinnacles National Monument was established on January 16, 1908, for the purpose of protecting its natural rock formations, known as Pinnacles Rocks, and the series of talus caves underlying them. The monument sits within one of the most complex and fascinating geologic terrains in North America, an area where rock … [read more]

The islands, rocks, and pinnacles of the California Coastal National Monument overwhelm the viewer, as white-capped waves crash into the vertical cliffs or deeply crevassed surge channels and frothy water empties back into the ocean. Amidst that beauty lies irreplaceable scientific values vital to protecting the fragile ecosystems of the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Defense the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by section 1406 of the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by section 1401(b) of the National Defense Authorization Act for … [read more]

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