A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
234 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2013

HASH(0xb9c6344) HASH(0xb77c198) 3. Based on actions that the Government of Mali has taken over the past year, pursuant to section 506A(a)(1) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that Mali meets the eligibility requirements set forth in section 104 of the AGOA and section 502 of the 1974 Act, and … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. HASH(0xb9df90c) The Secretary of State is authorized … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44301-44310, I hereby: 1. Determine that the continuation of U.S. air transportation is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services … [read more]

On December 17, 1903, decades of dreaming, experimenting, and careful engineering culminated in 12 seconds of flight. Wilbur and Orville Wright's airplane soared above the wind-blown banks of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, pushing the boundaries of human imagination and paving the way for over a century of innovation. On Wright … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on October 31, 2013, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

When America's Founders declared our independence, they set forth an idea that became our Nation's defining creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit … [read more]

Six and a half decades ago, delegates from around the world convened to adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, rejecting the notion that individual aspirations should be subject to the whims of tyrants and empires, and affirming every person's right to liberty, equality, and justice under the law. On … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45)(the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of the … [read more]

Today, the United States has lost a close friend, South Africa has lost an incomparable liberator, and the world has lost an inspiration for freedom, justice, and human dignity—Nelson Mandela is no longer with us, he belongs to the ages. Nelson Mandela achieved more than could be expected of any … [read more]

More than seven decades ago, on a calm Sunday morning, our Nation was attacked without warning or provocation. The bombs that fell on the island of Oahu took almost 2,400 American lives, damaged our Pacific Fleet, challenged our resilience, and tested our resolve. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the authority under section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as … [read more]

Nearly a quarter century has gone by since our Nation passed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a landmark civil rights bill that enshrined the principles of inclusion, access, and equal opportunity into law. The ADA was born out of a movement sparked by those who understood their disabilities should … [read more]

During the holiday season, Americans join with family, friends, and neighbors to take part in longstanding traditions. For some, those celebrations are tempered by the absence of loved ones taken too soon in traffic crashes involving drugs or alcohol, or caused by distracted driving. During National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, … [read more]

In order to create a clean energy economy that will increase our Nation's prosperity, promote energy security, combat climate change, protect the interests of taxpayers, and safeguard the health of our environment, the Federal Government must lead by example. During my Administration, Federal agencies have reduced their annual greenhouse gas … [read more]

Each year on World AIDS Day, we come together as a global community to fight a devastating pandemic. We remember the friends and loved ones we have lost, stand with the estimated 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS, and renew our commitment to preventing the spread of this virus at … [read more]

This August, as we marked the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington, we were reminded that the measure of America's progress is not whether the doors of opportunity are cracked a little wider for a few, but whether our economic system provides a fair shot for the many. Minority-owned … [read more]

Thanksgiving offers each of us the chance to count our many blessings—the freedoms we enjoy, the time we spend with loved ones, the brave men and women who defend our Nation at home and abroad. This tradition reminds us that no matter what our background or beliefs, no matter who … [read more]

Whether united by blood or bonds of kinship—whether led by a mother and father, same-sex couple, single parent, or guardian—families are the building blocks of American society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the spirit that moves family members to care for one another, to grow and dream together, and … [read more]

A half century ago, America mourned the loss of an extraordinary public servant. With broad vision and soaring but sober idealism, President John F. Kennedy had called a generation to service and summoned a Nation to greatness. Today, we honor his memory and celebrate his enduring imprint on American history. … [read more]

Each year on National Child's Day, America takes time to celebrate our most precious resource. We reaffirm our commitment to giving our next generation the tools to lead, innovate, and pursue their own measure of happiness. In the United States of America, no matter where you come from, who you … [read more]

Education is both a pillar of democracy and a cornerstone of American opportunity. In an increasingly competitive world, it gives our children the tools to thrive and our Nation the talent to lead. During American Education Week, we reaffirm our commitment to the next generation, and we celebrate everyone who … [read more]

During the First and Second World Wars, Americans showed their patriotism by participating in scrap drives and salvage collections. A committed citizenry gave up their personal typewriters, joined in volunteer efforts to harvest oil-producing peanuts, and donated old tires in a nationwide push to conserve and repurpose resources vital to … [read more]

On November 9, 1989, Germans from East and West united to bring down the Berlin Wall, marking the arrival of a new age. A symbol of oppression crumbled under the force of popular will. A people transitioned from the pain of division to the joy of reunification. And all over … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On Veterans Day, America pauses to honor every service member who has ever worn one of our Nation's uniforms. Each time our country has come under attack, they have risen in her defense. Each time our freedoms have come under assault, they have responded with resolve. Through the generations, their … [read more]

Over the last few decades, our Nation has grown increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure, the backbone of our national and economic security. America's critical infrastructure is complex and diverse, combining systems in both cyberspace and the physical world—from power plants, bridges, and interstates to Federal buildings and the massive electrical … [read more]

Every young person deserves the chance to learn and grow under the care of a loving family. Across our Nation, adoptive families give that chance to over a million children and teenagers. During National Adoption Month, we celebrate these families and stand alongside every child still looking for the warmth … [read more]

With more than 25 million Americans living with a diabetes diagnosis, and many more going undiagnosed, diabetes affects people across our country and remains a pressing national health concern. During National Diabetes Month, we renew our dedication to combating this chronic, life-threatening illness by standing with those living with diabetes, … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, an unbroken chain of patriots has strengthened us in times of peace and defended us in times of war. Yet the courageous men and women of the United States military do not serve alone. Standing alongside them are husbands and wives, parents and children, sisters and … [read more]

From Alaskan mountain peaks to the Argentinian pampas to the rocky shores of Newfoundland, Native Americans were the first to carve out cities, domesticate crops, and establish great civilizations. When the Framers gathered to write the United States Constitution, they drew inspiration from the Iroquois Confederacy, and in the centuries … [read more]

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible and progressive brain disease that slowly erodes precious memories, thinking skills, and the ability to perform simple tasks. It affects millions of Americans, including senior citizens as well as younger Americans with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. This month, we stand with everyone confronting the painful reality … [read more]

Across our country, more than 60 million Americans take up the selfless and unheralded work of delivering care to seniors or people with disabilities or illnesses. The role they play in our healthcare system is one we must recognize and support. During National Family Caregivers Month, we thank these tireless … [read more]

The entrepreneurial spirit has always been at the heart of our Nation's story. With inventions that changed American life and startups that lifted our economy as they grew, entrepreneurs helped make our country what it is today. During National Entrepreneurship Month, we celebrate America's innovators, support small businesses, and empower … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Thomas S. Foley, former Speaker of the House of Representatives, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, I hereby order that the flag of the … [read more]

In 1945, after two world wars that showed the horrific lethality of modern conflict, 51 member states came together to create the United Nations, a bold new organization that sought to build a lasting peace for the generations to follow. Today, 68 years after the adoption of the United Nations … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under section 1261(b) and to the Secretary of Commerce the … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain … [read more]

As Americans, we are bound together by a set of ideals put forth by our Founders—that we are all created equal, that we possess certain unalienable rights, including the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that, above all, we are one people. During National Character Counts … [read more]

Our Nation's forests are essential to our lasting prosperity and to who we are as a people. These natural wonders provide clean air and water for our communities and abundant habitats for wildlife, as well as building materials for our homes, and jobs and recreation for workers and families across … [read more]

Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to waive the application of the prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA with respect to Chad, South … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during fiscal year … [read more]

In 1946, when American communities bore the weight of endemic malnutrition, and parents struggled to provide their children with decent meals for the long school day, President Harry Truman signed the National School Lunch Act. The law is based on a simple conviction—that in the most powerful Nation on earth, … [read more]

Blind and visually impaired persons have always played an important role in American life and culture, and today we recommit to our goals of full access and opportunity. Whether sprinting across finish lines, leading innovation in business and government, or creating powerful music and art, blind and visually impaired Americans … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy … [read more]

Late in the summer of 1492, Christopher Columbus, a renowned navigator and fearless adventurer, set out with three ships into uncharted waters. He hoped to discover a new route to the east—opening trade routes for precious spices and paving the way for his patrons, Ferdinand II and Isabella I, to … [read more]

All children deserve to grow up healthy and safe. And we all share an obligation to ensure our youth have the necessary resources to thrive. This Child Health Day, let us recommit to providing our children with one of life's most basic building blocks—a healthy start. My Administration remains committed … [read more]

Since the first German settlers joined the Jamestown colony in 1608, German Americans have helped shape our identity—the small band of families who left the banks of the Rhine to found Germantown, Pennsylvania; the men, women, and children who fled the tyranny of fascism; the multitudes who sailed across the … [read more]

Fires take more American lives than all other natural disasters combined. They inflict devastating tolls on families and communities, and they cost our Nation billions of dollars each year. During Fire Prevention Week, we pay tribute to the brave men and women who put their lives on the line to … [read more]

Today, we honor the memory of Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, the Polish-born hero of the American Revolutionary War. General Pulaski's devotion to liberty knew no boundaries, and his bravery on the battlefield helped secure our independence. He sacrificed his life in defense of our freedom, and each year on October … [read more]

More than a millennium ago, Leif Erikson, a son of Iceland and grandson of Norway, cast off from Norway's familiar shores and set sail for Greenland. Erikson and his crew were not aiming to make history. But their ship drifted off course in the North Atlantic, and they landed in … [read more]

From Asia to Europe, from Africa to the Americas, nations that have embraced the ideals of equality and inclusion have emerged more stable, peaceful, and prosperous. When countries empower girls to pursue their dreams, they not only fulfill a basic moral obligation, they also realize more fully their social and … [read more]

Our Nation has always drawn its strength from the differences of our people, from a vast range of thought, experience, and ability. Every day, Americans with disabilities enrich our communities and businesses. They are leaders, entrepreneurs, and innovators, each with unique talents to contribute and points of view to express. … [read more]

Since the passage of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) nearly 20 years ago, our Nation's response to domestic violence has greatly improved. What was too often seen as a private matter best hidden behind closed doors is now an established issue of national concern. We have changed our laws, … [read more]

To meet the challenges of the 21st century, we must work to ensure a clean, safe, and sustainable energy future. This National Energy Action Month, we can build on the progress we have made by recommitting to increasing our energy security, strengthening our economy, combatting climate change, and improving the … [read more]

In an increasingly interconnected world, many Americans rely on the Internet and digital tools every day—from communicating with colleagues, friends, and family across the globe to banking and shopping without leaving our homes. Technology is reshaping every aspect of our lives, and protecting our digital infrastructure from cyber threats is … [read more]

Throughout our history, America has advanced not only because of our people's will or our leaders' vision, but also because of paintings and poems, stories and songs, dramas and dances. These works open our minds and nourish our souls, helping us understand what it means to be human and what … [read more]

Every October, America stands in solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every corner of the United States—in 2013 alone, more than 230,000 women and over 2,000 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and tens of thousands will die from … [read more]

Today, too many Americans face futures limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety, and academic performance. Substance use disorders are linked to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse prevention programs across our country, and we do our part to build healthier neighborhoods and … [read more]

Through hunting and fishing, in traditions handed down from generation to generation, families strengthen their bonds and individuals forge connections with the great outdoors. They rise before dawn to cast a line on a misty stream or wait patiently in a stand as a forest awakes. Parents help toddlers reel … [read more]

Atop soaring mountain peaks, alongside bubbling streams, in woodlands and grasslands that stretch over rolling hills, Americans find inspiration in our great outdoors. Just as our diverse and rugged landscapes reflect our national character, the way we care for these open spaces mirrors our commitment to future generations. On National … [read more]

In our city centers and our bustling parks, monuments stand dedicated to visionary leaders and singular moments in the life of our Republic. But in empty seats at family dinners and folded flags above the mantle, we find the constant thread of our Nation's character—the truth that America endures because … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State: (1) the authority under section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, FY 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit and/or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial … [read more]

Across generations, members of the United States Armed Forces have made America the greatest force for freedom and security the world has ever known. This week, we honor members of the National Guard and Reserve who carry that legacy forward. We thank the employers who support them; and we reaffirm … [read more]

Before the Civil War, an education—much less a college education—was out of reach for most African Americans. There were few institutions focused on meeting the intellectual curiosity and spurring the academic growth of African American students. But as our Union began to heal from the wounds of war, and the … [read more]

Our country endures because in every generation, courageous Americans answer the call to serve in our Armed Forces. They represent the very best of the human spirit, stand tall for the values and freedoms we cherish, and uphold peace and security at home and around the globe. Today, we pay … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 40(g) and 40A(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), I hereby: • determine that the transaction, encompassing the provision of defense articles and defense services to vetted members of … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of sections … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on September 16, 2013, at the Washington Navy Yard, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby … [read more]

In May of 1787, delegates gathered in the Pennsylvania State House to chart a new course for our nascent country. They met in a time of economic hardship and passionate debate, but with the understanding that while controversy is a hallmark of democracy, the forces of tension and uncertainty pale … [read more]

From the earliest days of our Republic, Hispanic Americans have written crucial chapters in our national story. Hispanics have honorably defended our country in war and built prosperity during times of peace. They run successful businesses, teach our next generation of leaders, and pioneer scientific and technological breakthroughs. This month, … [read more]

Farmers, ranchers, and farmworkers form the cornerstones of some of America's most essential economic sectors. Their products feed, clothe, and fuel our Nation. Their way of life—handed down from generation to generation—is central to the American story. During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we celebrate our agricultural producers' values, … [read more]

There is no better investment than a great education—both for young people individually, and for our Nation as a whole. In an increasingly competitive, knowledge-based economy, higher education helps build a skilled workforce and provides clear pathways to success. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) impart essential knowledge while broadening horizons and giving … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note) and a previous determination on September 10, 2012 (77 FR 56753, September 13, 2012), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2013. I … [read more]

Twelve years ago this month, nearly three thousand innocent men, women, and children lost their lives in attacks meant to terrorize our Nation. They had been going about their day, harming no one, when sudden violence struck. We will never undo the pain and injustice borne that terrible morning, nor … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on … [read more]

This week, Americans come together to mark the 12th anniversary of a day that shook our country to its core. Where two towers once cast a shadow, men and women gather in the early light to pay their respects. In a Pennsylvania field once scarred by debris, bells ring out … [read more]

In every corner of our country and across all walks of life, grandparents are a tremendous source of wisdom, strength, and joy. They are caregivers, teachers, and friends—windows to the past and guideposts for the future. On National Grandparents Day, America pauses to honor the bedrocks of our families and … [read more]

On September 5, 1882, in what is thought to be the first Labor Day event, thousands of working Americans gathered to march in a New York City parade. In the 131 years since, America has called on our workers time and again—to raise and connect our cities; to feed, heal, … [read more]

Every September, America renews our commitment to curing childhood cancer and offers our support to the brave young people who are fighting this disease. Thousands are diagnosed with pediatric cancer each year, and it remains the leading cause of death by disease for American children under 15. For those children … [read more]

In the United States, obesity affects millions of children and teenagers, raising their risk of developing serious health problems, including diabetes, cancer, asthma, heart disease, and high blood pressure. While childhood obesity remains a serious public health issue, we have made significant strides toward stemming the tide. After three decades … [read more]

Each September, America calls attention to a deadly disease that affects thousands of women across our country. This year, over 22,000 women will develop ovarian cancer, and more than half that number of women will die of this disease. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our support to … [read more]

Among American men, prostate cancer is both the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer deaths. Although prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates have declined over the past two decades, in 2013 alone, an estimated 239,000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with the … [read more]

In September 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act into law, recognizing places “where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” Throughout our history, countless people have passed through America's most treasured landscapes, leaving … [read more]

Each day, millions of Americans take courageous steps toward recovery from alcohol and drug addiction. Their examples reveal the transformative power of recovery, and their stories provide hope to those struggling to break free from addiction. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we celebrate their strength, challenge the … [read more]

Time and again, America faces crises that test our readiness and challenge our resolve—from natural disasters like hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods to shootings, cyber incidents, and even acts of terrorism. While my Administration is working tirelessly to avert national tragedies, it is every American's responsibility to be prepared. By planning … [read more]

On August 26, 1920, after decades of organizing, agitating, and demonstrating, our country achieved a major victory for women's rights and American democracy. The 19th Amendment was certified, extending the vote to women and advancing our Nation's long journey toward full equality for all Americans. The ratification of the 19th … [read more]

On August 28, 1963, hundreds of thousands converged on the National Mall to take part in what the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called “the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.” Demonstrators filled the landscape—from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, alongside the still waters … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

Community health centers play a critical role in providing affordable, high-quality preventive and primary health care to millions of Americans. From urban centers to rural towns, they offer vital services regardless of ability to pay—services that help patients stay healthy and avoid emergency room visits. During National Health Center Week, … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. ). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond … [read more]

The United States, like all nations, gathers intelligence in order to protect its national interests and to defend itself, its citizens, and its partners and allies from threats to our security. The United States cooperates closely with many countries on intelligence matters and these intelligence relationships have helped to ensure … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Division I, Public Law 112-74) (the “Act”) as carried forward by the Further Continuing … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the authority conferred upon the President by the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of … [read more]

More than two centuries ago, our forebears began an unending journey to form a more perfect Union. Twenty-three years ago, we took a historic step down that path with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)—a landmark law that seeks to extend the promise of equal opportunity enshrined in our founding … [read more]

Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis in the United States, leading to approximately 18,000 American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Lebanon pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Today, America pauses to observe the 60th anniversary of the end of the Korean War—a conflict that defined a generation and decided the fate of a nation. We remember the troops who hit the beaches when Communist forces were pressing south; who pushed back, and fought their way north through … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the authority conferred upon the President by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of … [read more]

As citizens of the oldest democracy on earth, we believe that all people are created equal with certain inalienable rights, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Together, we have kept that most basic promise shining bright for more than two centuries—upholding civil rights and expanding their reach, advancing … [read more]

On July 24, 2011, by Executive Order 13581, I declared a national emergency with respect to transnational criminal organizations pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United … [read more]

Service has always been integral to the American identity. Our country was built on the belief that all of us, working together, can make this country a better place for all. That spirit remains as strong and integral to our identity today as at our country's founding. Since its creation … [read more]

1. Section 502(b)(2)(G) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2462(b)(2)(G)), provides that the President shall not designate any country a beneficiary developing country under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) if such country has not taken or is not taking steps to afford … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the existence and risk … [read more]

With every passing day, the urgency of addressing climate change intensifies. I made clear in my State of the Union address that my Administration is committed to reducing carbon pollution that causes climate change, preparing our communities for the consequences of climate change, and speeding the transition to more sustainable … [read more]

On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the risk of nuclear proliferation … [read more]

In America, we believe that anyone willing to work hard and take risks can get their good idea off the ground and into the marketplace. It is a notion that has made our Nation bold and bright, and the best place to do business for generations—from small-town storefronts to pioneering … [read more]

After a lifetime of hard work and sacrifice, every American should be able to enjoy their golden years with dignity and security. But too often, senior citizens are the victims of abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation. Elder abuse is a global public health problem that affects people of every background … [read more]

Each day, men from every walk of life pour themselves into the hard, proud, rewarding work of raising our sons and daughters. And each June, families all across our country pause to say thanks and let fathers know how much they mean to us—not just as partners or providers, but … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 491 of title 10, United … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701—1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies … [read more]

A combination of American entrepreneurship and innovation, private investment, and smart policy has positioned the United States as the global leader in wireless broadband technologies. Expanding the availability of spectrum for innovative and flexible commercial uses, including for broadband services, will further promote our Nation's economic development by providing citizens … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on April 25, 2013, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

Each June, our Nation lifts its sights to the flag that has watched over us since the days of our founding. In those broad stripes and bright stars, we see the arc of the American story—from a handful of colonies to 50 States, united and free. When proud patriots took … [read more]

Our Nation's electric transmission grid is the backbone of our economy, a key factor in future economic growth, and a critical component of our energy security. Countries that harness the power of clean, renewable energy will be best positioned to thrive in the global economy while protecting the environment and … [read more]

For more than two centuries, our Nation has struggled to transform the ideals of liberty and equality from founding promise into lasting reality. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Americans and their allies have been hard at work on the next great chapter of that history—from the patrons of The … [read more]

From providing food and energy to helping sustain our climate and our security, the oceans play a critical role in nearly every part of our national life. They connect us to countries around the world, and support transportation and trade networks that grow our economy. For millions of Americans, our … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, people from every walk of life have set out to capture the American experience not just in poetry or prose, but also in the timeless quality of song. When the outcome of a revolution hung in the balance, drums and fifes filled brave patriots with the … [read more]

For centuries, the United States and nations in the Caribbean have grown alongside each other as partners in progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning for independence, our countries won the right to chart their own destinies after generations of colonial rule. Time and again, we have led … [read more]

The United States is blessed with a wealth of natural diversity that remains at the heart of who we are as a people. From breathtaking seascapes to the limitless stretch of the Great Plains, our natural surroundings animate the American spirit, fuel discovery and innovation, and offer unparalleled opportunities for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows: I hereby delegate functions and authorities vested in the President by the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate the functions conferred upon the President by section 804(h)(2)(A) of the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (21 U.S.C. … [read more]

Last year, devastating hurricanes upended coastal communities spanning the shores of New England to the Gulf of Mexico. Scenes from Isaac and Sandy shook us to the core—great cities plunged into darkness, homes swept away with the tide, families whose worlds were torn apart with the loss of a loved … [read more]

Since our Nation's earliest days, America has been blessed with an unbroken chain of patriots who have served our country with honor and distinction. From Concord to the Korengal, generations of brave warriors have fought for freedom across sand and snow, over mud and mountains, into lonely deserts and through … [read more]

Through every chapter of the American story, ordinary men and women have accomplished extraordinary things as members of the United States Merchant Marine. When the idea of America depended on the success of a revolution, mariners took on the world's most powerful navy and helped secure our future as a … [read more]

Every year, the United States Coast Guard joins partners nationwide to raise awareness about boating responsibly. We highlight that important work during National Safe Boating Week, and we encourage all boaters to take appropriate precautions before casting off this season. Safe boating starts onshore. Americans planning to spend a day … [read more]

In every corner of our country, emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners are hard at work delivering hope and care to Americans in dire circumstances. In the face of chaos and tragedy, their steady hands provide vital, life-saving services, and their calm under pressure delivers comfort to neighbors in need. During … [read more]

As a Nation, we need to do everything we can to create good, middle-class jobs right here in America. And one of the best ways we can do that is by boosting manufacturing and expanding trade that allows us to sell more of our goods and services all around the … [read more]

Since the earliest days of our Union, America has been blessed with an unbroken chain of patriots willing to give of themselves so their fellow citizens might live free. Whenever our Nation has come under attack, courageous men and women in uniform have risen to her defense. Whenever our liberties … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by obstacles to the continued … [read more]

Reliable, safe, and resilient infrastructure is the backbone of an economy built to last. Investing in our Nation's infrastructure serves as an engine for job creation and economic growth, while bringing immediate and long-term economic benefits to communities across the country. The quality of our infrastructure is critical to maintaining … [read more]

As a Nation, we have no task more urgent than creating good jobs, strengthening our economy, and reigniting the thriving middle class that has always been the true engine of America's growth. To meet these goals, we need to rebuild the infrastructure that powers our industries. We need to make … [read more]

Day after day, police officers in every corner of America suit up, put on the badge, and carry out their sworn duty to protect and serve. They step out the door every morning without considering bravery or heroics. They stay focused on meeting their responsibilities. They concentrate on keeping their … [read more]

On May 16, 2012, by Executive Order 13611, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of … [read more]

Today, sons and daughters all across America come together to honor the women who raised them. Whether single or in partnership, foster or adoptive, mothers hold a special place in our hearts. For many of us, they are our first caretakers and our first teachers, imparting the early lessons that … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, women have given their all to expanding opportunity for their families and for future generations. Decade after decade, that fierce dedication has been rewarded with remarkable progress in nearly every part of society; yet all too often, advances in women's health and well-being have lagged behind. … [read more]

As long as there have been courageous men and women willing to protect our Union and our ideals, there have been extraordinary spouses at their side—patriots in their own right who serve and sacrifice in ways many cannot fathom. They are moms and dads who take up the work of … [read more]

Almost 50 years ago, when President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women were paid 59 cents for every dollar paid to men. Today, women are paid 77 cents for every dollar paid to men. At the same time, nearly two-thirds of women are breadwinners or … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

Correction In Presidential document 2013-10817 beginning on page 26231 in the issue of Monday, May 6, 2013, make the following correction: On page 26231, on line 4, the Public Law number should read “104-208”. … [read more]

America's success in the 21st century depends on what we do today to reignite the true engine of our economic growth: a thriving middle class. Achieving that vision means making sure our education system provides ladders of opportunity for our sons and daughters. We need to equip all our students … [read more]

Americans have long turned to prayer both in times of joy and times of sorrow. On their voyage to the New World, the earliest settlers prayed that they would “rejoice together, mourn together, labor, and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work.” From … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-), that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

In the centuries since America broke from an empire and claimed independence, our people have come together again and again to meet the challenges of a changing world. We have reinvented our cities with advances in science and reformed our markets with new understanding of the forces that guide them. … [read more]

Each May, our Nation comes together to recount the ways Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) helped forge our country. We remember a time 170 years ago, when Japanese immigrants first set foot on American shores and opened a path for millions more. We remember 1869, when Chinese workers laid … [read more]

When natural disasters and other hazards put American lives at risk, robust codes and standards for our buildings play an important role in keeping us safe. They ensure our homes and businesses are resilient to the challenges of our time—not just by making them structurally sound, but also by boosting … [read more]

For half a century, communities in every corner of our country have come together to honor older Americans in a special way during the month of May. We carry that tradition forward again this year by recognizing their accomplishments, sharing their stories, and showing support and appreciation for our elders. … [read more]

As a Nation, we are bound together not by the colors of our skin, the tenets of our faith, or the origins of our names. What unites us as Americans is our allegiance to an idea articulated more than two centuries ago: that “all men are created equal; that they … [read more]

Over the past 3 years, communities all across America have joined First Lady Michelle Obama's Let's Move! initiative, which aims to help parents make healthy choices and give our children a strong start. Today, families have more of the tools and know-how they need to embrace a healthy lifestyle. Kids … [read more]

As a Nation, we have no task more important than ensuring our children grow up healthy and safe. It is a promise we owe to the hundreds of thousands of youth in foster care—boys and girls who too often go without the love, protection, and stability of a permanent family. … [read more]

Today, tens of millions of Americans are living with the burden of a mental health problem. They shoulder conditions like depression and anxiety, post-traumatic stress and bipolar disorder—debilitating illnesses that can strain every part of a person's life. And even though help is out there, less than half of children … [read more]

In his second year in office, President George Washington wrote a letter to the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island—one of our Nation's first Jewish houses of worship—and reaffirmed our country's commitment to religious freedom. He noted that the Government of the United States would give “to bigotry no sanction … [read more]

Our country boasts the world's most talented, driven, effective labor force. American workers power our homes and feed our families. They raise skyscrapers, transport goods to market, and manufacture products that are the envy of the world. Together, they form the backbone of our economy. As a Nation, we have … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of those who perished in the explosion in West, Texas, on April 17, 2013, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States … [read more]

Every year, millions of Americans fall victim to crime through no fault of their own. These are people we know: families trying to rebuild after financial fraud or identity theft, grandparents spending their golden years in the shadow of elder abuse, children whose right to safety has been stolen away … [read more]

For generations, ordinary Americans have taken it upon themselves to preserve our national landscape. They have been public servants and private citizens, patrons and Presidents—visionaries who saw our natural inheritance not as something to be used up, but as a treasure to be passed on. During National Park Week, we … [read more]

As Americans, we are inheritors to a legacy of diversity unlike any other place on earth. We are home to more than 300 million people who come from every background, practice every faith, and hold every point of view. But where difference could draw us apart, we are bound together … [read more]

As the world's technological leader and home to some of its most breathtaking natural wonders, America has a special responsibility to safeguard our environment. On Earth Day, we celebrate our rich legacy of stewardship and reflect on what we can do, as individuals and as a Nation, to preserve our … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (FAA), 22 U.S.C. 2348a, I hereby determine that: (1) as a result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on April 15, 2013, in Boston, Massachusetts, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order that … [read more]

One hundred and twenty-three years ago, countries across the Western Hemisphere came together to found the International Union of American Republics—a forerunner to the Organization of American States and a foundation for progress throughout the region. In the decades since, nations in the Americas have forged lasting partnerships in trade, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the laws of the United States of America, and in accordance with section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act (the “Act”), as amended, 2 U.S.C. 901a, I hereby order that, on October 1, 2013, direct spending budgetary … [read more]

Over the past 4 years, the American people have come together to lift our economy out of recession and forge a foundation for lasting prosperity. Our businesses have created millions of new jobs, our stock market is rebounding, and our housing market has begun to heal. But even now, too … [read more]

From the days of the Revolutionary War to the trials of our times, America has been blessed with an unbroken chain of patriots who have always stepped forward to serve. Whenever our country has come under attack, our men and women in uniform have risen to its defense. And whenever … [read more]

On April 12, 2010, by Executive Order 13536, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the deterioration of the security … [read more]

Today, public health officials estimate that 1 in every 88 children in America is growing up on the autism spectrum. It is a reality that affects millions of families every day, from the classroom to the job market. And while our country has made progress in supporting Americans with autism … [read more]

Section 1112 of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113-6), reflects the Congress's decision to continue to deny statutory adjustments to any pay systems or pay schedules covering executive branch employees. In light of the Congress's action, I am instructing heads of executive departments and agencies … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate the functions conferred upon the President by sections 404 and 406 of Public Law 112-208 as follows: I … [read more]

Every year, Americans all across our country pause on March 31 to remember a man who made justice his life's calling. Growing up the son of migrant farm workers who lost everything in the Great Depression, Cesar Chavez knew hard work and hardship from an early age. He labored long … [read more]

In the last 20 years, our Nation has made meaningful progress toward addressing sexual assault. Where victims were once left without recourse, laws have opened a path to safety and justice; where a culture of fear once kept violence hidden, survivors are more empowered to speak out and get help. … [read more]

For more than a decade, Americans have watched the overall cancer death rate drop lower and lower with each passing year. As a Nation, we have measured that progress not just in the lives we have saved, but also in the moments we have shared—patients lifted up by the promise … [read more]

America is a country where all of us should be able to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children who have experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse Prevention Month is a … [read more]

All Americans deserve the chance to turn their hard work into a decent living for their families and a bright future for their children. Seizing that opportunity takes more than drive and initiative—it also requires smart financial planning. During National Financial Capability Month, we recommit to empowering individuals and families … [read more]

Today, more than 115,000 men, women, and children are on the waiting list for an organ transplant. To help them get the care they need, millions of Americans choose to be organ and tissue donors—a decision that reflects not only profound generosity, but also our commitment to one another. During … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 203 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended … [read more]

In far northern New Mexico, the Río Grande Wild and Scenic River flows through a deep gorge at the edge of the stark and sweeping expanse of the Taos Plateau. Volcanic cones, including the Cerro de la Olla, Cerro San Antonio, and Cerro del Yuta, jut up from this surrounding … [read more]

Within Washington State's Puget Sound lies an archipelago of over 450 islands, rocks, and pinnacles known as the San Juan Islands. These islands form an unmatched landscape of contrasts, where forests seem to spring from gray rock and distant, snow-capped peaks provide the backdrop for sandy beaches. Numerous wildlife species … [read more]

Sites within the State of Delaware encompass nationally significant objects related to the settlement of the Delaware region by the Swedes, Finns, Dutch, and English, the role that Delaware played in the establishment of the Nation, and the preservation of the cultural landscape of the Brandywine Valley. A national monument … [read more]

Harriet Tubman is an American hero. She was born enslaved, liberated herself, and returned to the area of her birth many times to lead family, friends, and other enslaved African Americans north to freedom. Harriet Tubman fought tirelessly for the Union cause, for the rights of enslaved people, for the … [read more]

Colonel Charles Young was the highest ranking African-American commanding officer in the United States Army from 1894 until his death in 1922. He also served as the first African-American superintendent of a national park, overseeing Sequoia and General Grant (now Kings Canyon) National Parks while commanding a troop of Buffalo … [read more]

Each year, America celebrates Greek Independence Day to strengthen the bonds between the birthplace of democracy and the world's oldest republic. We recognize the enduring contributions of Greek Americans, woven into the fabric of our national life. And we reflect on the ancient Hellenic principles that inspired our Founders to … [read more]

In a letter to his nephew, Thomas Jefferson once wrote, ``an honest heart being the first blessing, a knowing head is the second.'' It is a notion that rings as true today as it did in 1785: that just as we owe our children a strong start in the classroom, … [read more]

For more than 50 years, Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect ourselves and our loved ones from accidental poisoning. This week, we carry that tradition forward by encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12957, which declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, seasons of trial and bitter hardship have revealed a core belief we share as Americans: that when we see our neighbors in need, we will always stand united in helping them get back on their feet. This month, we honor men and women who deliver relief … [read more]

For more than two centuries, America has been made and remade by striving, hopeful immigrants looking for a chance to pursue their dreams. Millions among them were born in Ireland, separated from our shores but united by their belief in a better day. This month, we celebrate the Irish-American journey, … [read more]

Today, people of all ages will mark Read Across America Day by celebrating stories that have shaped us. We take this opportunity to reflect on the transformative power of the written word and lift up literacy as a key to success in the 21st century. We also take time to … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the laws of the United States of America, and in accordance with section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended (the “Act”), 2 U.S.C. 901a, I hereby order that budgetary resources in each non-exempt budget account … [read more]

Over 4 years ago, widespread abuses in America's financial system nearly brought our economy to its knees. Millions saw their life savings erode, businesses shuttered their doors, and families were devastated by job loss and foreclosure. This crisis cast a harsh light on the breakdown in oversight that led to … [read more]

On March 4, 1913, President William Howard Taft signed a bill establishing the United States Department of Labor—an agency charged with promoting the welfare of American workers and ensuring their efforts are rewarded with fair wages and real protections. After decades of struggle by labor leaders and ordinary citizens, the … [read more]

Ten years ago, when the tragic events of September 11 were fresh in our hearts and our Nation found itself in a more uncertain world, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) opened its doors with a single task: keeping the American people safe. Day by day, hour by … [read more]

For more than two centuries, our Nation has grown under the simple creed that each of us is created equal. It is a notion that makes America unlike any other place on earth—a country where no matter where you come from or what you look like, you can go as … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Division I, Public Law 112-74) (the “Act”) as carried forward by the Continuing Appropriations … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that an unforeseen emergency exists that requires immediate military assistance to Chad and France in their efforts to secure Mali from terrorists and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby delegate to you: (1) the function of the President to make all certifications, reports, and notifications to the Congress prior to entry into force of the Treaty Between … [read more]

On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by Colonel Muammar Qadhafi, his government, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

Heart disease is the leading cause of death among American men and women, claiming well over half a million lives annually. While no one is immune to heart disease, everyone can take steps to reduce their risk. During American Heart Month, we make a commitment—for ourselves and our families—to staying … [read more]

On December 1, 1955, our Nation was forever transformed when an African-American seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white passenger. Just wanting to get home after a long day at work, Rosa Parks may not have been planning to make … [read more]

This year, it is estimated that 1 in 10 teens will be hurt intentionally by someone they are dating. While this type of abuse cuts across lines of age and gender, young women are disproportionately affected by both dating violence and sexual assault. This month, we stand with those who … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in or … [read more]

In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart of our founding: that no matter who you are, no matter what you look like, no matter how modest your beginnings or the circumstances of your birth, you can make it if you try. Yet, for many and for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 1306 of the Moving Ahead for Progress in … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the authority to suspend the provisions of title III of the Cuban Liberty and … [read more]

Promoting gender equality and advancing the status of all women and girls around the world remains one of the greatest unmet challenges of our time, and one that is vital to achieving our overall foreign policy objectives. Ensuring that women and girls, including those most marginalized, are able to participate … [read more]

The Director of National Intelligence and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management shall jointly propose the amended regulations contained in the Office of Personnel Management's notice of proposed rulemaking in 75Fed. Reg. 77783 (December 14, 2010), with such modifications as are necessary to permit their joint publication, without … [read more]

At a time of deep division nearly 50 years ago, a booming voice for justice rang out across the National Mall, reverberated around our country, and sent ripples throughout the world. Speaking to thousands upon thousands rallying for jobs and freedom, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his … [read more]

Four years ago, the American people came together to chart a new course through an uncertain hour. We chose hope over fear and hard work during hardship, confident that the age-old values that had guided our Nation through even its darkest days would be sufficient to meet the trials of … [read more]

Foremost among the rights Americans hold sacred is the freedom to worship as we choose. Today, we celebrate one of our Nation's first laws to protect that right—the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Written by Thomas Jefferson and guided through the Virginia legislature by James Madison, the Statute affirmed that … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Since it became operational in 1998, the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) has been an essential tool in the effort to ensure that individuals who are prohibited under Federal or State law from possessing firearms do not acquire them from Federal Firearms Licensees (FFLs). The ability of the … [read more]

Reducing violent crime, and gun-related crime in particular, is a top priority of my Administration. A key component of this effort is ensuring that law enforcement agencies at all levels—Federal, State, and local—utilize those tools that have proven most effective. One such tool is firearms tracing, which significantly assists law … [read more]

In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands of individuals, families, and communities across the Nation. Each year in the United States there are approximately 30,000 firearm-related deaths, and approximately 11,000 of those deaths result from homicides. Addressing … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you all functions conferred upon the President by subsections (a) and (b) of section 6 of Public … [read more]

In Presidential document 2012-27143 beginning on page 66507 in the issue of Monday, November 5, 2012, make the following correction: On page 66507, the proclamation identification heading on line one should read “Proclamation 8894 of October 29, 2012”. … [read more]

Each year, millions of Americans face the fear, isolation, and danger of being victims of stalking. At some point in their lives, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 19 men will be stalked, and many of these crimes will go unreported and unprosecuted. During National Stalking Awareness Month, we … [read more]

Our American family is bound together by caring individuals who make it their mission to serve others. During National Mentoring Month, we pay special tribute to the men and women who enrich the lives of our young people and fortify the unbreakable bonds between one generation and the next. Mentors … [read more]

On December 31, 1862, our Nation marked the end of another year of civil war. At Shiloh and Seven Pines, Harpers Ferry and Antietam, brother had fought against brother. Sister had fought against sister. Blood and bitterness had deepened the divide that separated North from South, eroding the bonds of … [read more]

This month, we rededicate ourselves to stopping one of the greatest human rights abuses of our time. Around the world, millions of men, women, and children are bought, sold, beaten, and abused, locked in compelled service and hidden in darkness. They toil in factories and fields; in brothels and sweatshops; … [read more]

Consistent with the authority provided to me under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5), as amended by section 1306 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Public Law 111-203), I have determined that it is not in the best interest of the … [read more]

Latest Readers

@JURISTnews

Support JURIST

We rely on our readers to keep JURIST running

 Donate now!

© Copyright JURIST Legal News and Research Services, Inc., 2013.