A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
203 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2011

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

Today's issuance, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for power plants (the “MATS Rule”) represents a major step forward in my Administration's efforts to protect public health and the environment. This rule, issued after careful consideration of public comments, prescribes standards … [read more]

On a blustery December morning in 1903, two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, successfully piloted the world’s first powered flying machine and ascended from the steady currents of North Carolina’s Outer Banks into the heights of our collective memory. During the 12 seconds their aircraft remained aloft in Kitty Hawk’s gusty … [read more]

Pursuant to section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of the exports of the Russian Federation (Russia) and goods that compete with imports into Russia. I further determine that such state trading … [read more]

With the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly affirmed the eternal truths that all people have the right to liberty, equality, and justice under the law. On Human Rights Day and during Human Rights Week, we celebrate our fundamental … [read more]

On December 15, 1791, the United States adopted the Bill of Rights, enshrining in our Constitution the protection of our inalienable freedoms, from the right to speak our minds and worship as we please to the guarantee of equal justice under the law. For 220 years, these fundamental liberties have … [read more]

On International Day of Persons with Disabilities, we recommit to ensuring people living with disabilities enjoy full equality and unhindered participation in all facets of our national life. We recognize the myriad contributions that persons with disabilities make at home and abroad, and we remember that disability rights are universal … [read more]

On a serene Sunday morning 70 years ago, the skies above Pearl Harbor were darkened by the bombs of Japanese forces in a surprise attack that tested the resilience of our Armed Forces and the will of our Nation. As explosions sounded and battleships burned, brave service members fought … [read more]

Though we have made progress in the fight to reduce drunk driving, our Nation continues to suffer an unacceptable loss of life from traffic accidents that involve drugs, alcohol, and distracted driving. To bring an end to these heartbreaking outcomes, we must take action by promoting rigorous enforcement measures and … [read more]

On World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported, we stand with the individuals and communities affected by HIV and recommit to progress toward an AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic by investing in research that … [read more]

From irrigation to the Internet, our Nation’s critical infrastructure supports an incredible array of services and industries that are essential to our continued success and prosperity. Critical infrastructure includes all systems and assets, both physical and virtual, that make vital contributions to our security, economic stability, public health, or safety. … [read more]

This year, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) commemorates 50 years of progress dedicated to saving lives, building partnerships, and promoting peace and prosperity for the developing world and the American people. Since President John F. Kennedy founded USAID in 1961, the men and women of USAID have … [read more]

Section 1. Purpose. This memorandum begins an executive branch-wide effort to reform records management policies and practices. Improving records management will improve performance and promote openness and accountability by better documenting agency actions and decisions. Records transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) provide the prism through … [read more]

For generations, American families have empowered our sons and daughters with boundless love, giving them the courage to pursue their dreams. This week, we celebrate the threads of compassion and unity that tie our families together, enrich our communities, and strengthen the fabric of our Nation. My Administration remains steadfast … [read more]

As a Nation, we carry a fundamental responsibility to unlock the potential within every child. To prepare our children for the 21st century, we must continue to make investments in their health, development, and learning that will be lasting cornerstones of their success. Today, we celebrate our sons and daughters, … [read more]

With tenacity, resilience, and humility, our farmers and ranchers have helped drive our Nation’s growth for generations. Season after season, their careful stewardship and dedication brings an abundance of wholesome food, plentiful fiber, a stronger economy, and new opportunities to secure our clean energy future. During National Farm-City Week, we … [read more]

One of our Nation’s oldest and most cherished traditions, Thanksgiving Day brings us closer to our loved ones and invites us to reflect on the blessings that enrich our lives. The observance recalls the celebration of an autumn harvest centuries ago, when the Wampanoag tribe joined the Pilgrims at Plymouth … [read more]

As Americans, we have a responsibility to ensure future generations benefit from an abundance of natural resources and a healthy planet. To meet this obligation, we must take steps to consume carefully, recycle a wide variety of products and materials, and reuse whenever possible. On America Recycles Day, we celebrate … [read more]

Ensuring our future leaders and innovators receive a complete and competitive education is fundamental to our Nation’s economic prosperity and our role as a thriving democracy. During American Education Week, we acknowledge the central role education plays in our society and resolve to make rigorous and lasting investments in our … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

On November 9, 1989, the German people broke through a barrier that divided their nation, demonstrating no wall is strong enough to hold back the rising tide of human liberty. There could be no clearer rebuke of tyranny, nor a stronger affirmation of freedom. On World Freedom Day, we commemorate … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Today, our Nation comes together to honor our veterans and commemorate the legacy of profound service and sacrifice they have upheld in pursuit of a more perfect Union. Through their steadfast defense of America’s ideals, our service members have ensured our country still stands strong, our founding principles still shine, … [read more]

With every step we take on American soil, we tread on ground made safer for us through the invaluable sacrifices of our service members and their families. During Military Family Month, we celebrate the exceptional service, strength, and sacrifice of our military families, whose commitment to our Nation goes above … [read more]

As a Nation, one of our highest responsibilities is to ensure the health and well-being of our children. With generous hearts and open minds, we strive to make sure all children grow up knowing they have a family that shares with them the warmth, security, and unconditional love that will … [read more]

Though we have made substantial progress in combating diabetes, the number of Americans burdened by this disease continues to grow at a rapid pace. During National Diabetes Month, we commemorate the work of caregivers, researchers, medical professionals, and advocates who lead the fight against diabetes, and we recommit to educating … [read more]

From inventing the traffic light to developing the artificial heart, our Nation’s doers, makers, and entrepreneurs have proven time and again that, in America, it takes only a single good idea and the courage to pursue it to change history. In fulfilling this simple promise, these visionaries play a critical … [read more]

Across our country, millions of family members, neighbors, and friends provide care and support for their loved ones during times of need. With profound compassion and selflessness, these caregivers sustain American men, women, and children at their most vulnerable moments, and through their devoted acts, they exemplify the best of … [read more]

From the Aleutian Islands to the Florida Everglades, American Indians and Alaska Natives have contributed immensely to our country’s heritage. During National Native American Heritage Month, we commemorate their enduring achievements and reaffirm the vital role American Indians and Alaska Natives play in enriching the character of our Nation. Native … [read more]

For millions of Americans, the heartbreak of watching a loved one struggle with Alzheimer’s disease is a pain they know all too well. Alzheimer’s disease burdens an increasing number of our Nation’s elders and their families, and it is essential that we confront the challenge it poses to our public … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

As I outlined in my State of the Union address to the Congress on January 25, 2011, winning the future in the global economy will require a Government that wisely allocates its scarce resources to maximize efficiency and effectiveness so that it can best support American competitiveness, innovation, and job … [read more]

In 1945, 51 nations in a world shaken by war signed the Charter of the United Nations. Determined to move beyond an era of violence and uncertainty, these pioneers aimed to prevent conflict by addressing its causes. Today, the United Nations provides a forum to seek lasting peace by mediating … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain … [read more]

Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), I hereby: certify that the Government of Chad has implemented measures that include an action plan and actual steps to come into compliance with the standards outlined in the CSPA, and has … [read more]

America’s forests have long played an integral role in shaping and developing our Nation. They help us access clean water and air, drive discovery as natural laboratories, and make our communities more beautiful and vibrant places to live. From renewable energy and biofuels to green building materials, forests also provide … [read more]

Generations of blind and visually impaired Americans have dedicated their passion and skills to enhancing our national life—leading as public servants, penning works of literature, lending their voice to music, and inspiring as champions of sport. On Blind Americans Equality Day, we celebrate the achievements of blind and visually … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

In times of adversity and triumph alike, the American people have been guided by the strength of our character. With resilience and compassion, we have provided for our neighbors, lifted their spirits, and embraced our shared humanity. During National Character Counts Week, we celebrate our country’s core values and commit … [read more]

Today, America pays tribute to Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, a proud Polish patriot who embraced our country’s highest ideals. He fought for freedom on two continents, earned the title, “Father of the American Cavalry,” and guided his unit through some of the toughest tests of the Revolutionary War, ultimately laying … [read more]

Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of fires happen in and around American homes every year, killing or injuring thousands of people and causing untold damage to families and communities. This week, we honor the selfless first responders who put themselves on … [read more]

The first Europeans known to set foot on North America took to the ocean more than a millennium ago, facing fierce waters and an uncertain course. Led by Leif Erikson—son of Iceland and grandson of Norway—these intrepid Scandinavians sailed fearlessly into the unknown, driven by the promise of adventure and … [read more]

On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus and his crewmembers sighted land after an ambitious voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. The ideals that guided them to this land—courage, determination, and a thirst for discovery—have inspired countless Americans and led to some of our Nation’s proudest accomplishments. Today, we renew our commitment … [read more]

Children are America’s greatest treasure, and ensuring their health is one of our most important duties as parents, families, and community members. Our children’s continued ability to learn in the classroom, grow up healthy, and reach their full potential will depend on what we do now to secure their future. … [read more]

Throughout our history, America’s energy resources have laid the foundation for our Nation’s economic security and prosperity, powering our factories, lighting our classrooms, and warming our homes. Today, we stand at a critical juncture. As global demand for energy grows, the United States must take bold action to create a … [read more]

As a Nation of immigrants, America has been shaped and strengthened by the millions who have come to our shores seeking a better future. German men and women were among the first to have made the perilous journey across the Atlantic to seize the promise of the American dream. The … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 76,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Zimbabwe, not to … [read more]

This month, pink ribbons will be displayed around our country, adorning jackets and public spaces alike. A sign of solidarity, these ribbons remind us of our commitment to preventing and treating breast cancer, and to supporting those courageously battling this disease. Countless Americans will participate in events to raise awareness … [read more]

Americans, along with people around the world, depend on the Internet and digital tools for all aspects of our lives—from mobile devices to online commerce and social networking. This fundamental reliance is why our digital infrastructure is a strategic national asset, and why its security is our shared responsibility. This … [read more]

Utilizing the talents of all Americans is essential for our Nation to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world. During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we recognize the skills that people with disabilities bring to our workforce, and we rededicate ourselves to improving employment opportunities in both … [read more]

By providing strong support systems for our loved ones, and by talking with our children about the dangers of alcohol and other drugs, we can increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, we celebrate those dedicated to prevention efforts, and we … [read more]

One of the greatest responsibilities we have as a Nation is to ensure the health and well-being of our children. Today, we rededicate ourselves to providing our children with the quality health care, healthy food, clean environments, and safe schools and communities they deserve. We have taken important steps that … [read more]

During Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we recognize the significant achievements we have made in reducing domestic violence in America, and we recommit ourselves to the important work still before us. Despite tremendous progress, an average of three women in America die as a result of domestic violence each day. … [read more]

Norman Rockwell’s magazine covers are classic and recognizable portrayals of American life. A longtime advocate of tolerance, Rockwell was criticized by some for a painting now hanging steps from the Oval Office—The Problem We All Live With . Inspired by the story of Ruby Bridges, this painting depicts a young … [read more]

Our Nation is guided by the simple promise that no matter our origins, we can provide a better life for our children. We have long believed in a fair America, where, with hard work and determination, anyone can succeed. Our story has been written by generations who have put their … [read more]

Since our Nation’s earliest days, the men and women of our Armed Forces have demonstrated the courage and heroism that have come to define America. Across shores, in deserts, and on city streets around the world, extraordinary Americans have given their last full measure of devotion defending the freedoms we … [read more]

On vast plains and through dense forests, along rocky riverbanks and atop tranquil lakes, Americans of every age and background cherish their connection to the great outdoors. As we mark National Hunting and Fishing Day, we are reminded of the uniquely American idea that each of us has an equal … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44301-44310, I hereby: 1. Determine that the continuation of U.S. commercial air transportation is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the … [read more]

At the dawn of the 20th century, President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a tour of the American West that forever changed our Nation’s relationship with the outdoors. His visits to Yellowstone, Yosemite, the Grand Canyon, and other natural wonders instilled in him a commitment to conservation, and they motivated him … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Public Law 111-117), as carried forward by the Full Year Continuing Appropriations … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, … [read more]

To win the future and restore our position as the global leader in education, we must ensure all young Americans, regardless of background, have the opportunity to realize their full potential. As our Nation’s largest minority group, Hispanics represent more than 11 million students in America’s public elementary and secondary … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

In the summer of 1787, delegates from the States gathered in Philadelphia to build a new framework for our young republic. Our Constitution’s Framers represented diverse backgrounds, and on key issues, they were divided. Yet despite their differences, they courageously joined together in common purpose to create “a more perfect … [read more]

The food, fiber, and fuel generated by our agricultural sector are vital to America’s 21st-century economy. Farmers represent the best of the American dream—passing on proud traditions of hard work and commitment to their children. This week, we celebrate farmers’ contributions to the fabric of our Nation as they cultivate … [read more]

More than 150 years ago, courageous men and women took great risks and made extraordinary sacrifices to establish our country’s first African-American colleges and universities. These institutions remain at the forefront of providing educational opportunities to young people across our country today. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, … [read more]

Since September 11, 2001, the 9/11 Generation has borne the burden of war with courage and valor, continuing the legacy of the brave men and women who served before them. More than five million volunteers have worn our country’s uniform over the past 10 years, and thousands have given their … [read more]

In every conflict in which our Nation has been involved, selfless American service members have sacrificed their lives for the sake of our country and its principles. Too many have never come home, or have endured unthinkable hardship as prisoners of war. On this day, we echo the creed inscribed … [read more]

From those who trace their roots to America’s earliest days to those who recently came to the United States carrying nothing but hope for a better life, Hispanics have always been integral to our national story. As an American family more than 300 million strong, we constitute one people, sharing … [read more]

Technological advances have always driven America’s economy forward and improved the lives of our people, from the industrial innovations of the nineteenth century to today’s cutting-edge science. Progress in our Nation’s health care system is no different, and hinges on the work of hospitals, private practices, and information specialists as … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 2, 2010 (75 FR 54459, September 7, 2010), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2011. I … [read more]

Ten years ago, a bright September day was darkened by the worst terrorist attack on America in our Nation’s history. On this tenth anniversary of the tragic events of September 11, 2001, we lift in prayer and remembrance the men, women, and children who died in New York City, in … [read more]

The support of loved ones provides the earliest and often most powerful influence on our lives. Grandparents hold a special place in our families, serving as elders, caregivers, and sources of lasting inspiration. On National Grandparents Day, we honor the loving presence of these mentors who have contributed immeasurably to … [read more]

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the American people demonstrated that in times of hardship, the values that define us do not simply endure—they are stronger than ever. As a Nation, we responded to unthinkable tragedy with an outpouring of service and goodwill. On that … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the function conferred upon the President by section 2(a) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families … [read more]

Every day, hard-working men and women across America prove that, even in difficult times, our country is still home to the most creative, dynamic, and talented workers in the world. Generations of working people have built this country—from our highways and skylines, to the goods and services driving us in … [read more]

Ovarian cancer continues to have one of the highest mortality rates of any cancer, and it is a leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. This month, we remember the mothers, sisters, and daughters we have lost to ovarian cancer, and we extend our support to … [read more]

The mystery and wonder of wilderness is deeply rooted in our national character. For many of the first Americans—American Indians and Alaska Natives—the wilderness provided a source of sustenance and a foundation for their ways of life. Later, as explorers and the pioneers of a young country moved west, they … [read more]

Across America, thousands of courageous children fight pediatric cancer each year, facing life-threatening battles that would challenge men and women of any age. They are cared for by loving families, friends, and communities who band together to support children in times of great need. From raising money for research and … [read more]

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. The weight of this illness is felt not only by the men living with and fighting prostate cancer, but also by their families, friends, and communities who rally to care for their loved ones. … [read more]

Recovering from addiction to alcohol and other drugs takes strength, faith, and commitment. Men and women in recovery showcase the power each of us holds to transform ourselves, our families, and our communities. As people share their stories and celebrate the transformative power of recovery, they also help dispel myths … [read more]

Since the 1970s, the rate of childhood obesity in our country has tripled, and today a third of American children are overweight or obese. This dramatic rise threatens to have far-reaching, long-term effects on our children’s health, livelihoods, and futures. Without major changes, a third of children born in the … [read more]

Whenever our Nation has been challenged, the American people have responded with faith, courage, and strength. This year, natural disasters have tested our response ability across all levels of government. Our thoughts and prayers are with those whose lives have been impacted by recent storms, and we will continue to … [read more]

The 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution tore down the last formal barrier to women’s enfranchisement in our Nation and empowered America’s women to have their voices heard in the halls of power. This Amendment became law only after decades of work by committed trailblazers who fought to extend … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond … [read more]

Across our Nation, over 19 million Americans look to community health centers for medical checkups, education, advice, and critical services that keep them healthy. Throughout National Health Center Week, we recommit to supporting this vital resource for underserved communities, and we recognize the critical role community health centers play in … [read more]

The United States enduring commitment to respect for human rights and humanitarian law requires that its Government be able to ensure that the United States does not become a safe haven for serious violators of human rights and humanitarian law and those who engage in other related abuses. Universal respect … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). … [read more]

Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths of Americans living with the disease are unaware of their status and are not receiving care and treatment for their condition. Raising awareness about hepatitis is crucial to effectively fight stigmas, stem the tide of … [read more]

On June 25, 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War. For 3 years, our Armed Forces fought to help keep Korea free, suffering bitter reversals and winning stunning victories before the Military Armistice Agreement at Panmunjom secured the border near the … [read more]

Generations of Americans with disabilities have improved our country in countless ways. Refusing to accept the world as it was, they have torn down the barriers that prohibited them from fully realizing the American dream. Their tireless efforts led to the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), … [read more]

In light of the firm commitment of the United States to the preservation of international peace and security and our obligations under the United Nations Charter to carry out the decisions of the United Nations Security Council imposed under Chapter VII, I have determined that it is in the interests … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took … [read more]

There are times in the course of history when the actions of ordinary people yearning for freedom ignite the desires of people everywhere. Such brave actions led to the birth of our Nation, the fall of the Soviet Union, and countless other achievements that have shaped our world. During Captive … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, the function and authority conferred upon the President by section 1535(c)(1) … [read more]

Forty years ago, the 26th Amendment to the United States Constitution took effect, lowering the universal voting age in America from 21 years to 18 years. Millions of young Americans were extended the right to vote, empowering more young people than ever before to help shape our country. On this … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the existence and risk … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

Parenthood is the ultimate gift and an incredible responsibility. Every day, fathers across our country give everything they have to build a better future for their family, asking nothing in return but their children’s love and success. On Father’s Day, we honor the men in our lives who have helped … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

On June 14, 1777, the Second Constitutional Congress adopted a flag with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars to represent our Nation, one star for each of our founding colonies. The stars were set upon a blue field, in the words of the Congress’s resolution, “representing a new constellation” in the … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with … [read more]

The music of our Nation has always spoken to the condition of our people and reflected the diversity of our Union. African-American musicians, composers, singers, and songwriters have made enormous contributions to our culture by capturing the hardships and aspirations of a community and reminding us of our shared values. … [read more]

The story of America’s Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community is the story of our fathers and sons, our mothers and daughters, and our friends and neighbors who continue the task of making our country a more perfect Union. It is a story about the struggle to realize the … [read more]

The fabric of our Nation has been woven together and enriched by the diversity of our people. Our legacy as a Nation of immigrants is part of what makes America strong, and during National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich history and vibrant culture Caribbean Americans have brought to … [read more]

During National Oceans Month, we celebrate the value of our oceans to American life and recognize the critical role they continue to play in our economic progress, national security, and natural heritage. Waterborne commerce, sustainable commercial fisheries, recreational fishing, boating, tourism, and energy production are all able to contribute to … [read more]

For generations, America’s great outdoors have ignited our imaginations, bolstered our economy, and fueled our national spirit of adventure and independence. The United States holds a stunning array of natural beauty—from sweeping rangelands and tranquil beaches, to forests stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C.3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to theprovisions of section 2 of this … [read more]

For over two centuries, brave men and women have laid down their lives in defense of our great Nation. These heroes have made the ultimate sacrifice so we may uphold the ideals we all cherish. On this Memorial Day, we honor the generations of Americans who have fought and died … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 203 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended … [read more]

As Americans anticipate the warm weather of the summer months, we look to our Nation’s abundant outdoors and waterways for relaxation and recreation. America’s lakes, rivers, and oceans are enjoyable, but can sometimes pose dangers to watergoers. National Safe Boating Week is an opportunity to highlight the importance of safety … [read more]

The Armed Forces of the United States of America embody the highest ideals of our Nation. Serving at home and in posts around the world, our service members represent America as ambassadors of our principles. They display the honor, duty, and discipline of the finest fighting force the world has … [read more]

1. On May 6, 2003, the President entered into the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). The USSFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USSFTA Act”) (Public Law 108-78, 117 Stat. 948) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. Presidential … [read more]

National Hurricane Preparedness Week highlights the importance of planning ahead to protect our families and secure our communities and homes in advance of the upcoming hurricane season. Hurricanes are powerful storms that can create severe flooding, dangerous storm surges, high winds, and tornadoes. The effects of these storms can be … [read more]

In times of peace or war, the civilians serving in the United States Merchant Marine have helped keep our Nation safe and prosperous. We depend on these men and women serving on our ships and tugs, in our ports and shipyards, close to home or far at sea, to connect … [read more]

Each day, Americans rely on emergency medical service (EMS) systems to help them in their hour of greatest need. In communities across our Nation, we take comfort in knowing that well-trained, caring men and women are only a phone call away from treating injuries sustained in a car crash, responding … [read more]

America has long depended on a robust and reliable transportation network to support our drive towards lasting security and prosperity. Our highways, railroads, ports, and airways allow us to move around our country quickly and efficiently. Effective transportation systems have helped our economy grow, our first responders save lives, and … [read more]

Our Nation’s public safety officers are heroes who risk their lives to keep our families and communities safe. Each of these brave men and women goes to work not knowing what dangers might lie ahead, making tremendous sacrifices to uphold justice and protect the innocent. This week, we extend our … [read more]

American businesses embody the ingenuity and entrepreneurship that has defined our Nation since its founding, and they consistently reinvent themselves to adapt to changing times. As we recover from a historic economic recession, enterprising commercial leaders continue to look beyond our borders to supply the world with innovative and technologically … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Our country started as an idea, and it took hard-working, dedicated, and visionary patriots to make it a reality. Successful businesses start much the same way—as ideas realized by entrepreneurs who dream of a better world and work until they see it through. From the family businesses that anchor Main … [read more]

Building safety is a critical component of our homeland security, our personal and public safety, the protection of property, and our economic well-being. While disasters have had devastating and heartbreaking effects in our country and around the world, modern building safety standards and fire prevention codes help us withstand, mitigate, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2348a (FAA), I hereby determine that: (1) as a result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of assistance under Chapter Six of Part II of the FAA … [read more]

Military spouses serve as steady and supportive partners to the heroes in uniform who protect and defend our great Nation every day. Across America and around the world, military spouses serve our country in their own special way, helping families and friends through the stress of a deployment, caring for … [read more]

As our society has changed, so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at home while caring for an elderly parent, holding down two jobs, serving as the sole parent in a family, or defending our country overseas as a service member. Our Nation’s … [read more]

Women are a foundation of our families, and their health affects the well-being of our communities and our country. They often make health care decisions for their families as well as themselves. However, American women have not always had access to the health care they need, or the freedom to … [read more]

Fifty years ago, America was struggling to implement the ideals of justice and equality set forth in our founding. The Freedom Rides, organized in the spring of 1961, were an interracial, nonviolent effort to protest the practice of segregation. Setting out from Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, the Freedom … [read more]

This month, our Nation celebrates the contributions and accomplishments of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI). Our AAPI communities have roots that span the globe, but their stories of striving and success are uniquely American. As we celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we recognize the entrepreneurship and … [read more]

Since before our Nation’s founding, America’s shores have been a safe harbor for people seeking shelter, hope, and new lives free from persecution. Here, people of all faiths have broken bread, come together, and built a better future for their families. The Jewish story is intertwined with the American story—one … [read more]

Progress in America can be measured by the opportunities we pass on to our children. For nearly half a million youth in foster care across our country, the best path to success we can give them is the chance to experience a loving home where they can feel secure and … [read more]

National Physical Fitness and Sports Month shines a spotlight on the important role physical activity plays in our Nation’s health and wellness. Participation in sports can strengthen both body and mind, and all kinds of active pastimes can help improve physical and mental well-being. During this month, we rededicate ourselves … [read more]

Older Americans are now living longer, healthier, and richer lives than ever before. As the eldest of the baby boomers turn 65, our Nation can look forward to the contributions of a new generation of American seniors. Each year, we set aside the month of May to honor older Americans, … [read more]

In communities across our country, successful public charter schools help put children on the path to academic excellence by harnessing the power of new ideas, ground-breaking strategies, and the collective involvement of students, parents, teachers, and administrators. During National Charter Schools Week, we recognize these institutions of learning and renew … [read more]

At the core of our Nation’s values is our faith in the ideals of equality and justice under law. It is a belief embedded in our most cherished documents, and honored by President Eisenhower when he established Law Day in 1958 as “a day of national dedication to the principles … [read more]

Throughout our history, Americans have turned to prayer for strength, inspiration, and solidarity. Prayer has played an important role in the American story and in shaping our Nation’s leaders. President Abraham Lincoln once said, “I have been driven many times upon my knees by the overwhelming conviction that I had … [read more]

When our Nation’s Founders adopted the Declaration of Independence, they pledged to build a government that represented America’s highest ideals, a Union that secured its people’s sacred rights by “deriving [its] just powers from the consent of the governed.” From the Revolutionary War to the formation of our young country, … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

Every year in America, nearly four million workers suffer an occupational injury or illness, and thousands die from work-related injuries. These preventable tragedies disable workers, devastate families, and erode our economy. On Workers Memorial Day, we celebrate the improvements in American workplaces and remember those who have been injured, sickened, … [read more]

For over 40 years, our Nation has come together on Earth Day to appreciate and raise awareness about our environment, natural heritage, and the resources upon which generations of Americans have depended. Healthy land and clean water and air are essential to the health of our communities and wildlife. Earth … [read more]

The future of our Nation depends on our ability to instill in future generations the values that will help them write the next proud chapter of the American story—a dedication to knowledge and a sense of compassion for their fellow citizens. As we celebrate Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., we … [read more]

Every day, America’s national parks—from the smallest historic sites to the largest natural spaces—contribute to our Nation’s collective health and spirit. These places preserve our unique history and iconic symbols. They protect ecosystems and serve as reservoirs of biodiversity. They are sources of natural sounds, clean water, and fresh air. … [read more]

Generations of women have fought for the advancement of their sisters, daughters, and themselves in acts of great courage—reaching for and winning the right to vote, breaking barriers in America’s universities and boardrooms, and flooding the modern workforce with skilled talent. While our Nation has come far, obstacles continue to … [read more]

On April 12, 1861, artillery guns boomed across Charleston Harbor in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across 4 years of tremendous sacrifice, with over 3 million Americans serving in battles whose names reach across our history. The meaning … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you: (a) the functions and authority of the President contained in section 315 of title 32, United … [read more]

Though our homes and neighborhoods are safer than they have been in decades, millions of Americans still become victims of crime each year. For many citizens, a sense of security remains painfully elusive, and we must continue to fight crime wherever it exists. During National Crime Victims’ Rights Week, we … [read more]

Throughout Pan American Day and Pan American Week, we celebrate the close partnerships across our hemisphere that advance the ability of our citizens to enjoy freedom and reach for their highest aspirations. Every day, the future is being forged by the countries and peoples of the Americas. The world must … [read more]

The men and women of the United States Armed Forces have faced innumerable challenges while dedicating their lives to the defense of our liberties. Contending with perilous combat zones, deployment overseas, and long absences from home, generations of service members have answered America’s call in its hour of need. On … [read more]

America's story has been marked by the service of volunteers. Generations of selfless individuals from all walks of life have served each other and our Nation, each person dedicated to making tomorrow better than today. They exemplify the quintessential American idea that we can change things, make things better, and … [read more]

As a Nation, we must work to raise a drug-free and healthy generation of 21st-century leaders. Substance abuse and its consequences have grave impacts on our society—destroying lives, tearing apart families, and introducing drug-related violence to our neighborhoods. Young Americans especially need the help and support of caring adults to … [read more]

On April 12, 2010, by Executive Order 13536, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the deterioration of the security … [read more]

With autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affecting nearly one percent of children in the United States, autism is an urgent public health issue with a profound impact on millions of Americans. World Autism Awareness Day is an opportunity to recognize the contributions of individuals with ASDs and rededicate ourselves to the … [read more]

Over the past several decades, our Nation has made significant advances in the fight against cancer. Improvements in early detection and treatment of this disease have led to decreases in the rates of new cases and deaths, and many people who are diagnosed with cancer are living longer, with better … [read more]

Our Nation’s children are our hope for the future, and caring for them is one of our greatest responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting healthy families, protecting children, and supporting communities throughout our Nation. Although a strong … [read more]

Americans’ ability to build a secure future for themselves and their families requires the navigation of an increasingly complex financial system. As we recover from the worst economic crisis in generations, it is more important than ever to be knowledgeable about the consequences of our financial decisions. During National Financial … [read more]

Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby approve and direct the implementation of the revised Unified Command Plan. Consistent with title 10, United States Code, section 161(b)(2) and title 3, United States Code, section 301, you are directed to notify the Congress on my behalf. You are … [read more]

Our Nation must continue to confront rape and other forms of sexual violence as a deplorable crime. Too many victims suffer unaided, and too many offenders elude justice. As we mark National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, we recommit to building a society where no woman, man, or child … [read more]

Americans have always been a generous people, willing to give to others in need. In these challenging times, that spirit of service has been abundantly evident and has made a real difference in many lives. As we observe National Donate Life Month, we reflect on an important opportunity to … [read more]

Our Nation’s story of progress is rich with profound struggle and great sacrifice, marked by the selfless acts and fearless leadership of remarkable Americans. A true champion for justice, Cesar Chavez advocated for and won many of the rights and benefits we now enjoy, and his spirit lives on in … [read more]

On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in lower Manhattan. Flames spread quickly through the 8th, 9th, and 10th floors—overcrowded, littered with cloth scraps, and containing few buckets of water to douse the flames—giving the factory workers there little time to … [read more]

One hundred ninety years ago, Greece regained its independence and became a symbol of democracy for the world for the second time in history. As America recognizes this milestone in the birthplace of democracy, we also celebrate our warm friendship with Greece and the lasting legacy of Hellenic culture in … [read more]

Each day, emergency rooms treat nearly 2,000 Americans for accidental poisonings, and dozens die as a result of ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise exposing themselves to poisonous substances. In many cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to identify possible dangers in the … [read more]

On March 17, Italy celebrates the 150th anniversary of its unification as a single state. On this day, we join with Italians everywhere to honor the courage, sacrifice, and vision of the patriots who gave birth to the Italian nation. At a time when the United States was fighting for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

As I outlined in my State of the Union address to the Congress on January 25, 2011, winning the future in the global economy will require reducing our deficit while investing in areas critical to long-term economic growth and competitiveness such as education, innovation, and infrastructure. By out-educating, out-innovating, and … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Each day, families across America navigate complex financial decisions, from buying a home or car to paying off a loan or using a credit card. Consumer education is vital to protecting American families and preserving economic health in the United States. When fully informed about the potential risks in the … [read more]

Across America, millions of men and women experience vision loss or are affected by low vision or blindness. During Save Your Vision Week, we reinforce the importance of routine eye care and remind all Americans to take action to safeguard their eyesight. Vision is important to our everyday activities, and … [read more]

President Abraham Lincoln is revered in American history as the leader who held together a fractured country and liberated millions from slavery. His words are memorized by America’s schoolchildren, and his name is synonymous with freedom and unity. One hundred fifty years ago, on March 4, 1861, this self-taught man, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Subject to the provisions of sections 3 and 4 of … [read more]

Hidden in the pages of books are extraordinary worlds and characters that can spark creativity and imagination, and unlock the potential that lies within each of our children. Reading is the foundation upon which all other learning is built, and on Read Across America Day, we reaffirm our commitment to … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

I am proud to work with the White House Council on Women and Girls, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Department of Commerce on this week's release ofWomen in America , a report detailing the status of American women in the areas of families and income, health, employment, … [read more]

For over a century, the American Red Cross has harnessed the generosity of the American people, mobilizing us to offer assistance in the wake of disaster. Whether aiding towns fighting rising floodwaters or nations struggling with starvation and disease, the American Red Cross and its international partners have served during … [read more]

Our diverse Nation has been shaped by the sacrifices and successes of those who crossed both land and sea in pursuit of a common dream. For millions of Americans, this journey began in Ireland. In the wake of the Great Hunger, many sons and daughters of Erin came to our … [read more]

During Women’s History Month, we reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of women and honor their role in shaping the course of our Nation’s history. Today, women have reached heights their mothers and grandmothers might only have imagined. Women now comprise nearly half of our workforce and the majority of students … [read more]

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed an Executive Order establishing the Peace Corps, forever changing the way America sees the world and the world sees us. Today, one of President Kennedy’s most enduring legacies can be found in the over 200,000 current and returned Peace Corps Volunteers who have … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 7 of the Soil and Water Resources Conservation … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the Secretaries of Defense and Energy to jointly provide annual updates to the report specified in section 1251 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year … [read more]

The great abolitionist and orator Frederick Douglass once told us, “If there is no struggle, there is no progress.” Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the collective efforts of generations. For centuries, African American men and women have persevered to enrich our national life and … [read more]

Heart disease is a staggering health problem and a leading cause of death for American women and men. Thankfully, there are steps each of us can take to prevent this chronic disease. In a time when one in three adults in the United States is living with some form of … [read more]

National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation’s growing understanding that violence within relationships often begins during adolescence. Each year, about one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive relationships can impact adolescent development, and teens who experience dating … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in or … [read more]

Our Nation was founded on a shared commitment to the values of justice, freedom, and equality. On Religious Freedom Day, we commemorate Virginia’s 1786 Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that “all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion in matters … [read more]

Half a century ago, America was moved by a young preacher who called a generation to action and forever changed the course of history. The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. devoted his life to the struggle for justice and equality, sowing seeds of hope for a day when all … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Small businesses play an essential role in the American economy; they help to fuel productivity, economic growth, and job creation. More than half of all Americans working in the private sector either are employed by a small business or own one. During a recent 15-year period, small businesses created more … [read more]

My Administration is committed to enhancing effectiveness and efficiency in Government. Pursuant to the Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government, issued on January 21, 2009, executive departments and agencies (agencies) have been working steadily to promote accountability, encourage collaboration, and provide information to Americans about their Government's activities. To that … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on Saturday, January 8, 2011, in Tucson, Arizona, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

Pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief and under 10 U.S.C. 161, I hereby accept the recommendations of the Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and approve the disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the … [read more]

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