A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
219 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2009

1. Sections 501(1) and (4) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461(1) and (4)), provide that, in affording duty-free treatment under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), the President shall have due regard for, among other factors, the effect such action will have … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

Today I have signed an executive order entitled, “Classified National Security Information” (the “order”), which substantially advances my goals for reforming the security classification and declassification processes. I expect that the order will produce measurable progress towards greater openness and transparency in the Government's classification and declassification programs while protecting … [read more]

For 12 seconds on December 17, 1903, a wooden aircraft took to the skies above Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, lifting two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, to their place in history. Their singular triumph triggered a revolution in transportation that would bridge the vast distances between continents and forever alter our … [read more]

In December 1944, a brave band of American soldiers, stationed in the Ardennes Forest region on the Western Front of Europe, who were surrounded, poorly supplied and surviving in brutally cold conditions, took the brunt of a furious German assault. Their valor defined not just the beginning of the end … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public Law 107-40, 115 Stat. 224), and in order … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public Law 107-40, 115 Stat. 224), and in order … [read more]

More than 60 years ago, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, declaring the “inherent dignity” and “equal and inalienable rights” of all human beings as the “foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” This self-evident truth guides us today. Although every country … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared December 7, 1941, a “date which will live in infamy.” With over 3,500 Americans killed or wounded, the surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese on Pearl Harbor was an attempt to break the American will and destroy our Pacific Fleet. They succeeded in doing neither. … [read more]

My Administration is committed to building a high-quality, efficient health care system and improving access to health care for all Americans. Health centers are a vital part of the health care delivery system. For more than 40 years, health centers have served populations with limited access to health care, treating … [read more]

Critical infrastructure protection is an essential element of a resilient and secure nation. Critical infrastructure are the assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect on security, national economic security, public health or safety. … [read more]

Every day, people put themselves and their fellow Americans in danger on our Nation’s roadways when they drive after consuming alcohol or after using legal and illegal drugs. During this holiday season, we must all be especially vigilant in protecting our families, friends, and neighbors from drivers who are under … [read more]

This year, in an effort to renew our global commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms for persons with disabilities, the United States became a proud signatory of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This treaty represents a paradigm shift, urging equal protection and benefits … [read more]

Our Nation joins the world in celebrating the extraordinary advancements we have made in the battle against HIV and AIDS, and remembering those we have lost. Over the past three decades, brave men and women have fought devastating discrimination, stigma, doubt, and violence as they stood in the face of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign the authority to perform the functions conferred upon the President by sections 1041(c) and (d) of the National Defense Authorization … [read more]

American families are the foundation on which our Nation is built. Their expressions of unconditional love and dedication sustain family members and support our Nation’s communities. During National Family Week, we celebrate the inclusive spirit of American families and applaud the commitment of those family members who encourage us to … [read more]

America’s children deserve every opportunity to reach their fullest potential, and it is our responsibility to ensure they have the tools required to grow and flourish. This includes providing our young people with access to affordable, high-quality health care and an education that both informs and inspires. On National Child’s … [read more]

What began as a harvest celebration between European settlers and indigenous communities nearly four centuries ago has become our cherished tradition of Thanksgiving. This day’s roots are intertwined with those of our Nation, and its history traces the American narrative. Today, we recall President George Washington, who proclaimed our first … [read more]

Throughout our history, American entrepreneurs have been an effective force for innovation at home and around the world. From the airplane to the Internet search engine to new tractors, they have pioneered technologies, products, and processes that have improved lives and shaped the course of our future. Today, they are … [read more]

Our Nation’s farm and ranch families supply many of the basic necessities of our daily life. They manage a large portion of our country’s fertile land base, and they are caretakers of our valuable natural resources and diverse ecosystems. Their connections with urban and suburban communities are critical to our … [read more]

Every day, Americans who recycle conserve valuable resources while reducing our Nation’s carbon footprint. The reprocessing of materials is fundamental to our future prosperity, as recycling helps preserve our natural environment and sustain our economy. Recycling in the United States is a $236 billion industry, employing 1.1 million workers nationwide … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Our Nation’s thoughts and prayers are with the service members, civilians, and families affected by the tragic events at Fort Hood, Texas. The brave victims, who risked their lives to protect their fellow countrymen, serve as a constant source of strength and inspiration to all Americans. We ask God to … [read more]

Twenty years ago today, the Wall came down in Berlin and both a country and a continent came together. After thousands of East Berliners flooded through checkpoints into West Berlin, border restrictions dissolved across Eastern Bloc countries. The Iron Curtain that divided Europe for decades finally fell, ushering in a … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

The United States has a unique legal and political relationship with Indian tribal governments, established through and confirmed by the Constitution of the United States, treaties, statutes, executive orders, and judicial decisions. In recognition of that special relationship, pursuant to Executive Order 13175 of November 6, 2000, executive departments and … [read more]

Diabetes directly affects the lives of millions of Americans and their families. While no cure exists, medical advancements are continually producing new, more effective treatments to control the disease. Individuals who manage their diabetes properly can lower their risk of complications and live productive, normal lives. During National Diabetes Month, … [read more]

No one pays a higher price for our freedom than members of our Nation’s military and their families. As sons and daughters, husbands and wives, and mothers and fathers are deployed, military families endure with exceptional resilience and courage. They provide our troops with invaluable encouragement and love, and serve … [read more]

All children deserve a safe, loving family to protect and care for them. In America, thousands of young people are waiting for that opportunity. During National Adoption Month, we honor those families that have strengthened America through adoption, and we recommit to reducing the number of children awaiting adoption into … [read more]

Every day, millions of American families experience the difficult reality of Alzheimer’s disease. The physical and emotional demands of caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s can be overwhelming, but no one should face this disease alone. During National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Month, we recognize all those living with Alzheimer’s … [read more]

The true strength of the American family finds its roots in an unwavering commitment to care for one another. In difficult times, Americans come together to ensure our loved ones are comfortable and safe. Whether caring for a parent, relative, or child, our Nation’s caregivers selflessly devote their time and … [read more]

The indigenous peoples of North America—the First Americans—have woven rich and diverse threads into the tapestry of our Nation’s heritage. Throughout their long history on this great land, they have faced moments of profound triumph and tragedy alike. During National Native American Heritage Month, we recognize their many accomplishments, contributions, … [read more]

We have a sacred trust with those who wear the uniform of the United States of America. From the Minutemen who stood watch over Lexington and Concord to the service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, American veterans deserve our deepest appreciation and respect. Our Nation’s servicemen and women … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

America’s forests have helped spur the growth and development that has been indispensable to our Nation’s success. They have provided timber and water, as well as habitat for wildlife and opportunities for recreational activities. As a repository for renewable natural resources, forests have supplied the raw materials that have sustained … [read more]

On April 26, 2009, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the “Secretary”) first declared a public health emergency under section 319 of the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. 247d, in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. The Secretary has renewed that declaration twice, on July 24, 2009, … [read more]

In communities across America, people are working together to see our country through challenging times—educating our children, caring for the sick, and extending a hand to those in need. They remind us that the true character of our Nation is revealed by the good we do when the moment is … [read more]

The United Nations was created 64 years ago by men and women from every corner of the world. These architects of international cooperation acted out of an idealism rooted in the hard-earned lessons of war. They had the wisdom to understand that nations could do far more to advance their … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain … [read more]

All Americans deserve the freedom to participate in every aspect of our society and pursue their full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom—affording them greater independence and mobility. Today we renew our commitment to provide full inclusion and equal opportunities … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

Every young American deserves access to a wholesome, nutritious lunch. These meals prevent hunger and give our children the energy and nourishment they need to grow into healthy, productive adults. Since 1946, the National School Lunch Program has helped to protect the health and well-being of our children by providing … [read more]

More than 500 years have passed since Christopher Columbus set sail across the Atlantic Ocean in a bold attempt to expand human understanding of the known world. His voyage radically altered the course of history and changed our world forever. Many generations later, that same spirit of exploration inspires Americans … [read more]

Each year on this day, Americans pause to remember a patriot and champion of liberty who fought valiantly for the freedom of our Nation. During our struggle for independence, General Casimir Pulaski displayed heroic leadership and ultimately sacrificed his life in service to our country. His commitment to liberty remains … [read more]

On this day in 1825, the ship Restauration landed in New York City after sailing for 3 months from Stavanger, Norway. The 52 passengers aboard represented the first organized emigration of Norwegians to America. These brave individuals set to the seas, following in the grand footsteps of the famous Scandinavian … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 7034(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division H, Public Law 111-8), as carried forward by the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010 (Division B, Public Law 111-68), I hereby determine and certify that it is … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year … [read more]

Comprising the Nation's largest ancestry group, German Americans have contributed to our collective identity since the first settlements were founded in the 17th century. Essential to the growth of America, these farmers, soldiers, entrepreneurs, and patriots gave their strength, determination, and in some circumstances, their lives, so we all may … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, the power of the arts and humanities to move people has built bridges and enriched lives, bringing individuals and communities together through the resonance of creative expression. It is the painter, the author, the musician, and the historian whose work inspires us to action, drives us … [read more]

A more prosperous future for our Nation's economy means making investments in energy efficiency and clean energy today. Well-funded energy research and development will not only help protect our environment and support our communities, but it will also address concerns of global competitiveness and national security. Innovation in energy technology … [read more]

As powerful as any force in the natural world, fire deserves our utmost attention. Unchecked, fire can destroy homes, devastate our environment, and, at its worst, injure or fatally harm individuals. Fire Prevention Week is a time to learn about important fire safety issues and empower our communities to stay … [read more]

Our Nation has an obligation to provide access to affordable, high-quality health care for all our children. No child should be forced to go without medical attention because the cost of a doctor visit is too high. Healthy children are better equipped to combat illness and to perform well in … [read more]

Americans are constantly adopting new and innovative technologies. This exposure has dramatically increased our thirst for computers, smartphones, and other digital solutions at work and at home. Our Nation’s growing dependence on cyber and information-related technologies, coupled with an increasing threat of malicious cyber attacks and loss of privacy, has … [read more]

Domestic violence touches the lives of Americans of all ages, leaving a devastating impact on women, men, and children of every background and circumstance. A family’s home becomes a place of fear, hopelessness, and desperation when a woman is battered by her partner, a child witnesses the abuse of a … [read more]

Every day, we are inundated with vast amounts of information. A 24-hour news cycle and thousands of global television and radio networks, coupled with an immense array of online resources, have challenged our long-held perceptions of information management. Rather than merely possessing data, we must also learn the skills necessary … [read more]

In 2009, more than 190,000 women are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and more than 40,000 women are expected to die from this disease. It is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. As we observe … [read more]

Fair access to employment is a fundamental right of every American, including the 54 million people in this country living with disabilities. A job can provide financial stability, help maximize our potential, and allow us to achieve our dreams. As Americans, we possess a range of vocational opportunities to make … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of Title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions of the President under section 1512 of the National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

Our family provides one of the strongest influences on our lives. American families from every walk of life have taught us time and again that children raised in loving, caring homes have the ability to reject negative behaviors and reach their highest potential. Whether children are raised by two parents, … [read more]

The sacrifices of our military servicemembers are etched in the walls of our monuments and felt at empty dinner tables across America. To those who have given their lives for our country, we honor them as guardians of our liberty and pay tribute to their valiant service. As our Nation … [read more]

Borne out of a commitment to protect and preserve our natural treasures, America's public lands are an indispensable component of American life. As we work to protect their integrity for future generations, vast expanses of land remain available for the use and enjoyment of all who visit them. National Public … [read more]

Our Nation’s prosperity has been built on the skill and productivity of our farmers and ranchers. Two centuries ago, many American families toiled in fields and grasslands so that they might feed themselves. Today, those in the agricultural sector provide food, fiber, biofuels, and many other life necessities for millions … [read more]

From atop Pikes Peak to the shores of the James River, Americans celebrate the great abundance and utility of our natural resources. Since our Nation's founding, hunters and anglers have cherished these unparalleled natural gifts and marveled at their untamed beauty. National Hunting and Fishing Day recognizes the contributions of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (DPRK), and Zimbabwe, not to … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, … [read more]

Our Nation maintains a solemn commitment to leave no service member behind. Our men and women in uniform uphold this pledge every day, and our country further upholds it as we honor every man and woman who serves, particularly those taken as prisoners of war or missing in action. We … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

The United States Constitution has withstood the test of time for more than two centuries as our Nation’s charter of government and the guarantor of our liberties. Signed in Philadelphia on September 17, 1787, this founding document reflects our core values and enshrines the truths set forth in the Declaration … [read more]

The story of Hispanics in America is the story of America itself. The Hispanic community’s values—love of family, a deep and abiding faith, and a strong work ethic—are America’s values. Hispanics bring together the rich traditions of communities with centuries-old roots in America and the energy and drive of recent … [read more]

Today, we commemorate a milestone in our Nation's struggle to end violence against women. Authored by then United States Senator Joe Biden and signed into law in September 1994, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was the first law to create a comprehensive response to this problem at the national … [read more]

Citizens willing to serve in uniform when duty calls have helped protect our freedom and security since our Nation's founding more than 200 years ago. During times of peace, they have worked in our cities and towns, contributing their skill and energy to local businesses, schools, and civic organizations. During … [read more]

As part of my Administration's ongoing effort to reform our health care system, we have reached out to members of both political parties and listened to the concerns many have raised about the need to improve patient safety and to reform our medical liability system. Between 44,000 and 98,000 patients … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223(91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2008 (73 FR 54055, September 17, 2008), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2009. I hereby … [read more]

On July 9, 2009, the United States International Trade Commission(USITC) submitted a report to me that contained a determination pursuant to its investigation under section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”), that certain passenger vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of … [read more]

Through the twisted steel of the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the scarred walls of the Pentagon, and the smoky wreckage in a field in southwest Pennsylvania, the patriotism and resiliency of the American people shone brightly on September 11, 2001. We stood as one people, united in … [read more]

Preparedness is an essential element of a resilient and secure Nation. My Administration has made preparedness a top priority, and we are working every day to ensure our country stands ready to respond to any disaster or emergency—from wildfires and hurricanes, to terrorist attacks and pandemic disease. Our goal is … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on the … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, working Americans have carried us through times of challenge and uncertainty and propelled America through eras of peace and prosperity. They have long formed the backbone of our Nation's economy, and they will continue to lead our Nation to new heights in the years to come. … [read more]

They were daughters and sons, sisters and brothers, mothers and fathers, spouses and partners, family and friends, colleagues and strangers. They hailed from cities and towns across our Nation and world. On September 11, 2001, thousands of innocent women and men were taken from us, and their loss leaves an … [read more]

The American wilderness has inspired wonder and imagination for centuries and is an irreplaceable part of our Nation's heritage. Even before the birth of the United States, visitors from near and far were struck by its splendor and purity. The unaltered American landscape stood apart from any other in the … [read more]

Every year, Americans across the country overcome their struggles with addiction. With personal determination and the support of family and friends, community members, and health professionals, they have turned the page on an illness and sought the promise of recovery. On this occasion, we recognize these brave role models and … [read more]

Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer among women in the United States. Every year, thousands are diagnosed and go on to fight the disease with grace and dignity. National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month honors all those affected by this cancer and renews our commitment … [read more]

As a Nation, we have made significant progress in the fight against prostate cancer. Over the last decade, prostate cancer mortality rates have fallen substantially. Yet, despite this progress, among men in the United States prostate cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of … [read more]

For generations, education has opened doors to untold opportunities and bright futures. Through quality instruction and a personal commitment to hard work, young people in every part of our Nation have gone on to achieve success. Established by men and women of great vision, leadership, and clarity of purpose, Historically … [read more]

1. In Presidential Proclamation 8097 of December 29, 2006, pursuant to the authority provided in section 1206(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 3006(a)) (the “1988 Act”), the President modified the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to reflect amendments to the International … [read more]

Senator Edward M. Kennedy was not only one of the greatest senators of our time, but one of the most accomplished Americans ever to serve our democracy. Over the past half-century, nearly every major piece of legislation that has advanced the civil rights, health, and economic well-being of the American … [read more]

Today, our country renews its commitment to freedom and justice for all our citizens. As we prepare to celebrate this women's day of equality, we reflect on the sacrifices once made to allow women and girls the basic rights and choices we freely exercise today. The future we leave to … [read more]

It is with great pride that our Nation commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of Statehood for Hawaii. On August 21, 1959, we welcomed Hawaii into the United States ohana , or family. Unified under the rule of King Kamehameha the Great, it was Queen Lili‘uokalani who witnessed the transition to a … [read more]

Our Nation’s strength rests on the ingenuity and creativity of the American people. Across our country, almost 4 million minority-owned firms exemplify this spirit as they create jobs, develop new products and services, and promote community and economic development. The growth and expansion of these businesses is an increasingly critical … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that continuation of U.S. flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009 (Division H, Public Law 111-8) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 601, title VI, Division A of the American Recovery … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). … [read more]

Today we celebrate the 19th anniversary of the enactment of the historic Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Signed into law on July 26, 1990, this landmark legislation established a clear mandate against discrimination on the basis of disability so that people with disabilities would have an equal opportunity to achieve … [read more]

Fifty-six years after the signing of the Military Armistice Agreement at Panmunjom, Americans remain grateful for the courage and sacrifice of our Korean War veterans. More than 600,000 United States and allied combatants lost their lives in Korea during the 3 years of bitter warfare that ended on July 27, … [read more]

Every day the Legal Services Corporation (LSC) breathes life into the timeless ideal, “equal justice under law.” It reaches those who cannot afford the assistance they need and those who would otherwise go without vital representation. Today we recognize the 35 years during which the LSC has moved our Nation … [read more]

Fifty years ago, President Eisenhower issued a call of solidarity to peoples across the world living under communist rule. This first Captive Nations Week Proclamation expressed concern that too many people lacked fundamental freedoms, and it affirmed that the people of the United States stood alongside those who yearned to … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign the authority to perform the functions conferred upon the President by sections 319(a), (c), and (d) and sections 14103(d), (e), … [read more]

Pursuant to section 402(c)(2)(A)of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618), as amended (the “Act”), I determine that a waiver by Executive Order of the application of subsections (a) and (b) of section 402 of the Act with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. … [read more]

Like an athlete out of practice, a child who takes long breaks from learning can face academic setbacks. This problem is especially prominent during the summer, when students may lose more than two months of progress. Children must remain engaged to maintain and build upon their current academic achievement. Learning … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the current existence and … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

The journey of fatherhood provides unique and lasting joys. Cradling a baby in his arms, a father experiences the miracle of life and an unbreakable bond. Fathers imagine a world of possibilities awaiting their children and contemplate the privilege of helping them reach that expanse of opportunity. As kids grow … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 2(b)(C) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I hereby determine that the Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a Marxist-Leninist country within the definition of such term in section 2(b)(2)(B)(i) of that Act. You … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 2(b)(C) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I hereby determine that The Lao People's Democratic Republic has ceased to be a Marxist-Leninist country within the definition of such term in section 2(b)(2)(B)(i) of that Act. … [read more]

In the midst of a war for our Nation's independence, on June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress adopted a flag as a symbol of our fledgling Union. The Congress resolved that the flag be “thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a … [read more]

Oceans are the Earth's dominant feature. They cover more than 70 percent of the planet's surface and affect our lives in a variety of ways. This month we celebrate the wonder of the oceans, and we commit to protecting and sustaining them for current and future generations. The oceans are … [read more]

Millions of hard-working, dedicated, and patriotic public servants are employed by the Federal Government as part of the civilian workforce, and many of these devoted Americans have same-sex domestic partners. Leading companies in the private sector are free to provide to same-sex domestic partners the same benefits they provide to … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

[Federal Register of Thursday, June 4, 2009, is being reprinted with a White House correction.] Forty years ago, patrons and supporters of the Stonewall Inn in New York City resisted police harassment that had become all too common for members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you all functions conferred upon the President by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 201 of … [read more]

The legacy of African-American composers, singers, songwriters, and musicians is an indelible piece of our Nation’s culture. Generations of African Americans have carried forward the musical traditions of their forebears, blending old styles with innovative rhythms and sounds. They have enriched American music and captured the diversity of our Nation. … [read more]

Caribbean Americans have made lasting contributions to our Nation’s culture and history, and the month of June has been set aside to honor their cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and social diversity. Generations of immigrants have preserved the traditions of their homelands, and these traditions have defined our Nation’s identity. Caribbean Americans … [read more]

Forty years ago, patrons and supporters of the Stonewall Inn in New York City resisted police harassment that had become all too common for members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out of this resistance, the LGBT rights movement in America was born. During LGBT Pride … [read more]

The United States is blessed with unparalleled natural beauty. From remote forests to urban parks, these spaces have inspired visitors for generations. Today, these areas continue to raise the human spirit in those who experience them. During the month of June, I encourage Americans to pay tribute to and … [read more]

Each year, hurricanes threaten the safety of American families in coastal and inland communities. These powerful storms can cause heavy rainfall, high winds, tornadoes, and storm surges, which can in turn bring severe flooding, power outages, damage to homes and businesses, and loss of life. Awareness and preparation are critical … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Arab Emirates Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the … [read more]

For over two centuries, Americans have defended our Nation’s security and protected our founding principles of democracy and equal justice under law. On Memorial Day, we honor those who have paid the ultimate price in defense of these freedoms. Members of the United States Armed Forces have placed our … [read more]

As outlined in my January 21, 2009, memoranda to the heads of executive departments and agencies on Transparency and Open Government and on the Freedom of Information Act, my Administration is committed to operating with an unprecedented level of openness. While the Government must be able to prevent the public … [read more]

Emergency medical services providers rush into scenes of uncertainty and fear, and they help establish order and calm—and save lives in the process. They include educators, 911 dispatchers, first responders, emergency medical technicians, paramedics, nurses, physicians, and many others. These highly skilled teams respond to emergencies 24 hours a … [read more]

Americans have long looked to the sea as a source of security and prosperity. Bounded by two oceans and the Gulf of Mexico, and criss-crossed by a myriad of inland waterways, America's destiny as a maritime nation was a story foretold. The Merchant Marine took up arms alongside the Continental … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the … [read more]

Each year, millions of Americans take to our Nation's waterways for recreational boating. Whether paddling down a rushing river or cruising on a serene lake, boaters are attracted to the incomparable feeling of being out on the water. They also are drawn by opportunities to exercise, appreciate nature, enjoy quiet … [read more]

The entrepreneurial spirit lies at the core of our Nation's economy and identity. If Americans with good ideas can work hard, put their plan to the test, and succeed, the American economy will continue to create jobs and lead the world in innovation and productivity. During National Small Business Week, … [read more]

From our Nation's founding, the American constitutional order has been a Federal system, ensuring a strong role for both the national Government and the States. The Federal Government's role in promoting the general welfare and guarding individual liberties is critical, but State law and national law often operate concurrently to … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

On Armed Forces Day, 1961, President Kennedy connected civic engagement and our Nation’s security. He stated, “the strength of our armed forces rests not alone upon their active and reserve members, our industrial productivity, and our human resources, but also upon the understanding and support of an informed American … [read more]

The Jewish American tradition exemplifies the strength of the American immigrant tradition. Since Jews arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654, Jewish Americans have maintained a unique identity just as they have enmeshed themselves in the fabric of the United States. This month we celebrate this inspiring and unifying narrative. Jewish … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the authority to perform the function conferred upon the President by section 1609(c) of Division A of the … [read more]

Every day, Americans rely on roads, rails, ports, and airports to get to work and to transport goods and services. At the same time, the United States Armed Forces rely on our transportation infrastructure to move personnel and supplies. During National Transportation Week and on National Defense Transportation Day, we … [read more]

Every day, peace officers put on their uniforms and go to work to safeguard America’s communities and uphold the freedoms we hold dear. This week we honor their contributions and sacrifice. Law enforcement officers routinely place themselves in harm’s way to protect people they do not and will not know. … [read more]

Military spouses share the sacrifices of service with our Nation's men and women in uniform. As members of the Armed Forces serve in the United States and across the world, military spouses also serve our Nation. When a servicemember goes to war, we know their spouse also shares in … [read more]

The time-honored tradition of recognizing mothers grew out of the imagination of a few bold women. Julia Ward Howe, composer of The Battle Hymn of the Republic , urged mothers to advocate for peace through a day dedicated to them. After her own mother passed away, Anna Jarvis sought to … [read more]

When the world’s consumers fly in a U.S.-manufactured airplane, eat a steak from America’s heartland, watch a Hollywood movie, or visit the Grand Canyon, they are helping to create and maintain good jobs for Americans. World Trade Week is an opportunity to reaffirm the benefits of trade and to emphasize … [read more]

Throughout our Nation’s history, Americans have come together in moments of great challenge and uncertainty to humble themselves in prayer. In 1775, as the Continental Congress began the task of forging a new Nation, colonists were asked to observe a day of quiet humiliation and prayer. Almost a century later, … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

Older Americans have carried our Nation through great challenges and triumphs. They have enriched our national character and strengthened the Republic for those who have followed. During the month of May, we pay tribute to the wisest among us. Throughout the land, older Americans are strengthening our communities and the … [read more]

Improving our schools is the collective responsibility of all Americans—business owners and workers, educators and parents, students and their communities. We must ensure that all students receive a high-quality education that delivers the knowledge and skills needed to succeed, and that young men and women stay on the path to … [read more]

The vast diversity of languages, religions, and cultural traditions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders continues to strengthen the fabric of American society. From the arrival of the first Asian American and Pacific Islander immigrants 150 years ago to those who arrive today, as well as those native to the … [read more]

A morning walk in the neighborhood or Saturday game of catch with a child can brighten the day. Simple activities like these also contribute to our physical fitness. As the weather warms and invites us outside, I encourage Americans to consider the many simple ways to add physical fitness activities … [read more]

In 1958, President Eisenhower established Law Day as “a day of national dedication to the principles of government under law.” Each year on Law Day, we celebrate our commitment to the rule of law. That great commitment is enshrined in the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, … [read more]

More than two centuries ago, our Nation’s Founders declared the birth of a new Nation and began an experiment in self-governance. The young Republic committed itself to protecting the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all citizens. These ideals inspired loyalty to the young Nation and … [read more]

In the Nation's ongoing efforts to achieve energy independence, biomass and biofuels promise to play a key role by providing the Nation with homegrown sustainable energy options and energizing our economy with new industries and jobs. While producing clean renewable fuels locally is a powerful engine of economic growth, they … [read more]

Harriet Beecher Stowe helped galvanize the abolitionist movement with her groundbreaking literature. Frances Perkins advised President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and led the Department of Labor during one of its most challenging periods in history. Barbara McClintock helped unlock the mysteries of genetics and earned a Nobel Prize. These and … [read more]

Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (the “Act”), Public Law 110-138, calls for the establishment of an interagency committee with responsibility for overseeing the implementation of Annex 18.3.4 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”) within 90 days after the date on which … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by sections 603-604 and 699 of the Foreign Relations Authorization … [read more]

From violence in our neighborhoods to credit card fraud on the Internet, Americans fall victim to countless crimes every day. Our Nation has no higher responsibility than protecting the safety of our families. During National Crime Victims’ Rights Week, we honor crime victims by pledging to fight crime wherever … [read more]

Our Nation’s story begins with a call to volunteer. Confronting the injustices of tyranny and small odds of victory, patriots rallied one another to serve a cause greater than themselves. As the beneficiaries of this legacy, we possess an obligation to volunteer and serve our fellow citizens with similar … [read more]

The story of the United States is inextricably tied to our vital natural resources. As we enter a new era filled with challenges and promise, we must protect our land, wildlife, water and air—the resources that have fueled our growth and prosperity as a Nation and enriched our lives. … [read more]

America’s National Parks are among our Nation’s most precious treasures. During National Park Week, we celebrate these spaces and commit to protecting them for future generations of Americans. National Parks bring together Americans of all backgrounds and help us understand the story of America. From the Lincoln Memorial and Ellis … [read more]

A common heritage, an interconnected world, and shared goals and values unite the Pan American community. As a proud member of this group of countries, the United States celebrates Pan American Day and Pan American Week and commits to working with our partners in the Organization of American States to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in Section 7034(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2009 (Div. H, Public Law 111 8), I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the … [read more]

American prisoners of war exemplify the courage and sacrifice that define our men and women in uniform. These brave warriors have paid a massive share of the costs of freedom, and our Nation will be forever in their debt. Today we honor all prisoners of war by recognizing the … [read more]

Sexual assault scars the lives of millions in the United States. To increase awareness about this issue, prevent future crimes, and aid victims, this month we mark National Sexual Assault Awareness Month. Sexual assault is pervasive in the United States. Study after study has shown that this crime impacts people … [read more]

Drugs, gangs, and violence threaten our children and communities every day. Today we commemorate Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.), a program that has worked to educate children and protect them from these problems. National D.A.R.E. Day provides the opportunity to reflect upon the dangers of drugs, gangs, and violence and … [read more]

The education we provide our children must prepare them to succeed in a global economy and to contribute to their communities. Commemorating Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., we underscore our commitment to a competitive and complete education. The professional demands of today’s workplace require a renewed commitment to education. Our … [read more]

We have achieved remarkable progress in the fight against cancer. Miracles in medical research have helped us understand how to prevent, detect, and treat cancer more effectively, and Americans are now more aware of how to protect themselves from this disease. Despite this progress, cancer continues to kill more Americans … [read more]

When the child next door is maltreated, we all suffer. Every American has a stake in the well-being of our Nation's children. They are members of our communities, and they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately … [read more]

Through organ, tissue, and marrow donation Americans can give the extraordinary gift of life. National Donate Life Month provides an opportunity to honor those who have given of themselves to save lives and to call upon others to participate in this generous effort. Every day in our Nation and … [read more]

The American people join Hellenes today in commemorating the 188th anniversary of Greece’s independence. As we celebrate the establishment of the Hellenic Republic, we honor the historic contributions of Greeks and Greek-Americans. Americans celebrated the cause of Greek independence during the new nation’s earliest years. In 1824, summarizing support … [read more]

My Administration is committed to ensuring that public funds are expended responsibly and in a transparent manner. Last month, I signed into law the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009,” Public Law 111-5 (the “Recovery Act” or “Act”), an investment package designed to provide a necessary boost to our … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is important to … [read more]

Since 1962, National Poison Prevention Week has helped raise awareness about the dangers of potentially poisonous substances and has provided the opportunity to educate fellow Americans about preventing and responding to poisonings. This education effort is critical to the well-being of children and adults alike, as both remain susceptible to … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

For nearly two centuries, Presidents have issued statements addressing constitutional or other legal questions upon signing bills into law (signing statements). Particularly since omnibus bills have become prevalent, signing statements have often been used to ensure that concerns about the constitutionality of discrete statutory provisions do not require a veto … [read more]

Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my Administration on a wide range of issues, including improvement of public health, protection of the environment, increased efficiency in the use of energy and other resources, mitigation of the threat of climate change, and protection of national security. … [read more]

Sixty-two years after its founding, the Red Cross was instrumental in what President Franklin D. Roosevelt called the “greatest single crusade of mercy in all of history.” In 1943, at the height of World War II, President Roosevelt called on the American people to support the troops by supporting … [read more]

Consumer education helps every American who enters the marketplace. When making a purchase, consumers should know their rights and should learn about goods and services before they buy. This knowledge allows consumers to make sound decisions and protects families and individuals from fraud and abuse. Consumer vigilance also prevents … [read more]

Blindness and visual impairment affect millions of Americans. Early diagnosis and timely treatment are critical to minimize vision loss from eye diseases as well as vision loss that is correctable with eye glasses or contact lenses. During Save Your Vision Week, I encourage all Americans to take action to … [read more]

Read Across America Day provides an opportunity to support efforts to excite children about reading and to educate families about the importance of literacy. I encourage families and all citizens to celebrate the joy and emphasize the importance of reading. Every American child deserves the opportunity to solve the puzzles … [read more]

Even before the birth of our Nation, the sons and daughters of Erin departed their homes in search of liberty and a more hopeful future. As these early pioneers left familiar lands, they carried with them the rich traditions of home. This March we honor their journey and their lasting … [read more]

With passion and courage, women have taught us that when we band together to advocate for our highest ideals, we can advance our common well-being and strengthen the fabric of our Nation. Each year during Women’s History Month, we remember and celebrate women from all walks of life who … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

The Federal Government has an overriding obligation to American taxpayers. It should perform its functions efficiently and effectively while ensuring that its actions result in the best value for the taxpayers. Since 2001, spending on Government contracts has more than doubled, reaching over $500 billion in 2008. During this same … [read more]

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531et seq ., reflects one of the Nation's profound commitments. Pursuant to that Act, the Federal Government has long required a process of broad interagency consultation to ensure the application of scientific and technical expertise to decisions that may affect threatened or endangered … [read more]

Together, we can turn the tide on the number one killer of American women and men. Heart disease claims more lives each year than all forms of cancer combined. During American Heart Month, we renew our commitment to promoting heart disease awareness. It is never too late to start … [read more]

The history of African Americans is unique and rich, and one that has helped to define what it means to be an American. Arriving on ships on the shores of North America more than 300 years ago, recognized more as possessions than people, African Americans have come to know … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Côte d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal … [read more]

Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is required to establish by certain dates energy efficiency standards for a broad class of residential and commercial products. These products are appliances and other equipment used in consumers' homes and in commercial establishments. In … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is important to … [read more]

The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families whose incomes are too high to qualify for Medicaid but too low to afford private insurance. Since 1997, when SCHIP was enacted, States have had the authority to set their SCHIP income … [read more]

For well over two decades, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has reviewed Federal regulations. The purposes of such review have been to ensure consistency with Presidential priorities, to coordinate regulatory policy, and to offer a dispassionate and analytical “second … [read more]

For many years, middle-class Americans have been working harder, yet not enjoying their fair share of the fruits of a growing economy. While the productivity of the American workforce grew during the decade ending in 2007, middle-income workers saw their real incomes fall. The current economic situation has exacerbated the … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Arab Emirates Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 671(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), I hereby: HASH(0xaaee128) HASH(0xae609b8) You are authorized and directed to report this determination … [read more]

Under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets emissions standards for new motor vehicles. California may also adopt standards for new motor vehicles if the Administrator of the EPA, based on criteria set out in the statute, waives the general statutory prohibition on State … [read more]

HASH(0xa5179ec) In 2007, the Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). This law mandates that, as part of the Nation's efforts to achieve energy independence, the Secretary of Transportation prescribe annual fuel economy increases for automobiles, beginning with model year 2011, resulting in a combined fuel economy fleet … [read more]

As I take the sacred oath of the highest office in the land, I am humbled by the responsibility placed upon my shoulders, renewed by the courage and decency of the American people, and fortified by my faith in an awesome God. We are in the midst of a season … [read more]

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151b(f)(1)), prohibits nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that receive Federal funds from using those funds “to pay for the performance of abortions as a method of family planning, or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortions.” The August 1984 announcement by President … [read more]

On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we recognize one of history’s most consequential advocates for equality and civil rights, and we celebrate his powerful message of justice and hope. Our Nation is better because Dr. King was a man of courage and vision who understood that love and … [read more]

In order to foster greater resolve to address trafficking in persons (TIP), specifically in punishing acts of trafficking and providing protections to the victims of these crimes, consistent with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (the “Act”) (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq .), it is in the … [read more]

1. On April 12, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”), and on June 24 and June 25, 2007, the Parties to the Agreement signed a protocol amending the Agreement. Congress approved the Agreement as amended in section 101(a) of the United States-Peru … [read more]

All human life is a gift from our Creator that is sacred, unique, and worthy of protection. On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, our country recognizes that each person, including every person waiting to be born, has a special place and purpose in this world. We also underscore our … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including the Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-286) (JADE Act) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to ensure that the … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

The United States is in a period of severe economic stress. Too many Americans have lost their jobs, their homes, their health insurance, or a substantial part of their retirement savings, and many more feel uncertain about the future. In these circumstances, Government must act forcefully and creatively to stimulate … [read more]

A democracy requires accountability, and accountability requires transparency. As Justice Louis Brandeis wrote, “sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability through transparency, is the most prominent expression of a profound national commitment to ensuring an open … [read more]

My Administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government. We will work together to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in Government. Government should be transparent . Transparency … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

Religious freedom is the foundation of a healthy and hopeful society. On Religious Freedom Day, we recognize the importance of the 1786 passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. We also celebrate the first liberties enshrined in our Constitution’s Bill of Rights, which guarantee the free exercise of religion … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 10(d)(1) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287e-2(d)(1)), I hereby determine that provision of assistance to the United Nations/African Union Mission in … [read more]

Over approximately 480 nautical miles, the Mariana Archipelago encompasses the 14 islands of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Territory of Guam that sit atop the Mariana Ridge in an area known as the Mariana Volcanic Arc. The Mariana Volcanic Arc is part … [read more]

The Pacific Remote Islands area consists of Wake, Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, and Palmyra Atoll, which lie to the south and west of Hawaii. With the exception of Wake Island, these islands are administered as National Wildlife Refuges by the United States Fish and Wildlife … [read more]

In the Pacific Ocean approximately 130 nautical miles east-southeast of Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, lies Rose Atoll—the easternmost Samoan island and the southernmost point of the United States. This small atoll, which includes the Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge with about 20 acres of land and 1,600 acres of … [read more]

During National Mentoring Month, we recognize the millions of individuals who dedicate themselves to making a difference in the lives of others, and we underscore our commitment to supporting these soldiers in America's armies of compassion. Every day across our great Nation, men and women of many different backgrounds … [read more]

1. On April 22, 1985, the United States and Israel entered into the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel (USIFTA), which the Congress approved in the United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act … [read more]

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