A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
188 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2007

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the … [read more]

Millions of Americans lend their time, talent, and energy to become mentors and make a difference in children's lives. During National Mentoring Month, we honor these caring individuals for their dedication to changing our country one heart and soul at a time. By sharing their knowledge and experiences, mentors serve … [read more]

The cause of discovery and exploration is a desire written in the human heart. On Wright Brothers Day, we remember the achievement of two young brothers on the Outer Banks of North Carolina whose persistence, skill, ingenuity, and daring revolutionized the world. Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first manned, … [read more]

Americans value deeply our ability to speak, assemble, and worship freely. As a Nation, we can help freedom-loving people everywhere build a world in which these rights are honored and respected. During Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, we celebrate the freedoms guaranteed to all … [read more]

On December 7, 1941, our Nation was viciously attacked at Pearl Harbor, America's Pacific Fleet was battered and broken, and more than 2,400 American lives were lost. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, America honors those brave individuals who made the ultimate sacrifice in defense of our homeland, and we … [read more]

On World AIDS Day, we reaffirm our commitment to fighting and preventing HIV/AIDS in America and around the world. We also remember those who have lost their lives to this terrible disease and those who continue to suffer. HIV/AIDS is a global challenge. In 2003, my Administration launched the President's … [read more]

Accidents related to drunk and drugged driving claim the lives of thousands of Americans every year. During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month we seek to raise awareness about the dangers of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs and encourage citizens to drive responsibly. As a Nation, … [read more]

As families gather together to celebrate Thanksgiving, we underscore the comforting and positive role they play in our society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the contributions of families everywhere. Families strengthen our communities by teaching important values such as compassion and honesty to their children. Families also offer a … [read more]

Our Nation's agricultural industry contributes greatly to the strength of our economy. During National Farm-City Week, we honor the hard work and dedication of America's farmers and ranchers and we highlight the important urban and rural partnerships that help keep our country strong and prosperous. America's farmers and ranchers embody … [read more]

As citizens of this great Nation, we have a responsibility to practice good environmental stewardship. On America Recycles Day, we underscore our commitment to conserving our resources by recycling. Through curbside collections and drop-off facilities, we are turning waste materials—including plastic, glass, aluminum cans, paper, tires, batteries, and building materials—into … [read more]

Americans are a grateful people, ever mindful of the many ways we have been blessed. On Thanksgiving Day, we lift our hearts in gratitude for the freedoms we enjoy, the people we love, and the gifts of our prosperous land. Our country was founded by men and women who realized … [read more]

On World Freedom Day, we commemorate the fall of the Berlin Wall and reaffirm our conviction that freedom is the inalienable right of every man, woman, and child. On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall fell—a triumph of freedom over those who denied hope and opportunity to millions. The collapse … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons “weapons of mass destruction” and the … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month is an opportunity to honor and support those living with Alzheimer's disease. During this month, we also seek to express our gratitude to the family members and caretakers who love and comfort those afflicted, and we renew our commitment to finding a cure to this … [read more]

Diabetes is a debilitating disease that affects millions of Americans of all ages and all walks of life. National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to raise awareness about risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a chronic illness that leaves the body unable to produce or … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we recognize the adoptive and foster families who have shared their homes and hearts with children in need, and we encourage more Americans to consider adopting young people of all ages. Families who adopt show the generous spirit of our Nation. Every child desires a permanent … [read more]

National American Indian Heritage Month is an opportunity to honor the many contributions of American Indians and Alaska Natives and to recognize the strong and living traditions of the first people to call our land home. American Indians and Alaska Natives continue to shape our Nation by preserving the heritage … [read more]

Each year during National Family Caregivers Month, we celebrate all those who dedicate themselves to caring for others and recognize their efforts to comfort and improve the lives of their loved ones in need. One of our Nation's defining values is compassion, and we must do our best to see … [read more]

One of America's greatest values is compassion, and our country is blessed by all those who dedicate themselves to caring for others. During National Hospice Month, we recognize the dedicated professionals and volunteers who provide love and comfort to those who are terminally ill. Across our Nation, hospice physicians, nurses, … [read more]

Throughout our history, America has been protected by patriots who cherished liberty and made great sacrifices to advance the cause of freedom. The brave members of the United States Armed Forces have answered the call to serve our Nation, ready to give all for their country. On Veterans Day, we … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007, Public Law 110-5, and the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2008, Public Law 110-92, I hereby determine … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, Syria, and Venezuela not to provide certain funding for those countries' governments … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 582 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102), and that section as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, I declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons … [read more]

After World War II, representatives from around the globe gathered to begin deliberations on a new international bill of rights. The document adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, stands as a landmark achievement in the history of human liberty. On United … [read more]

The greatness of a nation is measured not by power or wealth but by the character of its people. During National Character Counts Week, we underscore our dedication to promoting values for our young people and encourage all Americans to demonstrate good character. As America's youth strive to become responsible … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we celebrate the rich blessings of our Nation's forests, and we recognize the important resources they provide to our communities and our economy. Our Nation's forests supply vital products and create important employment opportunities. Trees provide wood to make homes, furniture, musical instruments, paper for … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”)(8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2008 is … [read more]

The National School Lunch Program provides millions of lunches to our Nation's children each school day. During National School Lunch Week, we renew our commitment to the health of our children and to ensuring that they receive nutritious meals and develop good eating habits. Since it began in 1946, the … [read more]

Our country upholds the value of every person, and all Americans deserve an opportunity to realize the American dream. Many citizens who are blind or visually impaired use white canes to achieve greater independence and increase mobility and productivity. On White Cane Safety Day, we celebrate the symbolism of the … [read more]

More than two hundred years after the death of General Casimir Pulaski, we honor the life and legacy of a Polish patriot and American Revolutionary War soldier who made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom. - Casimir Pulaski first demonstrated his devotion to the cause of liberty while defending his native … [read more]

During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm our commitment to raising awareness about fire safety and prevention, and we salute our country's firefighters who perform heroic acts to keep their fellow citizens safe. Fires injure or kill thousands of people each year. Americans can help reduce the devastating effects of fires … [read more]

Generations of German Americans have helped shape our national culture and advance our legacy of freedom. On German-American Day, we recognize the many contributions that Americans of German descent have made to our vibrant country. German immigrants, in search of a brighter future, were among the first pioneers to settle … [read more]

In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on a journey that changed the course of history. On Columbus Day, we celebrate this voyage of discovery and honor an Italian explorer who shaped the destiny of the New World. Christopher Columbus' bold journey across the Atlantic opened new frontiers of exploration and … [read more]

On Leif Erikson Day, we commemorate the enduring legacy of a brave explorer and honor the significant contributions of Nordic Americans who continue to enrich our culture and our way of life. Leif Erikson, a son of Iceland and grandson of Norway, led a determined crew across the Atlantic more … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 610(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of the Act that $25 million in FY07 funds available for assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 1314(c)(2) of the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 (Public Law 110-28 ) (the “Act”), I hereby waive the requirements of section … [read more]

Families are indispensable to a stable society, and they should be a place of support to instill responsibility and values in the next generation. When a family member is abused, it can have long-term damaging effects on the victim that leave a mark on family, friends, and the community at … [read more]

Our Nation is committed to the health and well-being of our youth. On Child Health Day, we reaffirm our commitment to helping children develop good nutrition habits and active lifestyles, so that they can grow into healthy and productive adults. Children today face many risks, such as alcohol and drug … [read more]

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American women. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to fighting this disease, raising awareness, and supporting those affected by breast cancer. Research has shown that several factors may increase the risk of developing breast cancer, … [read more]

National Disability Employment Awareness Month is an opportunity to recognize the contributions and accomplishments of Americans with disabilities and to underscore our Nation's commitment to advancing employment opportunities for all our citizens. Americans with disabilities strengthen our country's workforce, and their achievements help keep our Nation the world's economic leader. … [read more]

1. On December 17, 1992, the Governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182) (the “NAFTA Implementation … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under sections 2041(d)(3), 2042(c)(1), 2042(d), and 2043(c)(1) of … [read more]

America has been blessed by the brave men and women of our Armed Forces who have answered the call to defend our country and protect liberty around the world. On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor a special group of patriots: those who have been prisoners of war and those … [read more]

Families are the cornerstone of our Nation. On Family Day, we underscore our dedication to strengthening America's families and recognize the importance that the bonds between parents and children hold for the future of our country. Parents and family members are the first and most important influence in a child's … [read more]

The gift of liberty is secured by heroes who have answered the call to serve when America needed them most. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we honor the mothers of the service men and women who have given their lives in the defense of our great Nation. America's Gold Star … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2006 (71 Fed. Reg . 54399), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2007. I hereby … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, as amended (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Montenegro has entered into an agreement with the United States pursuant … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Hispanic Americans have strengthened our country and contributed to the spirit of America. National Hispanic Heritage Month is an opportunity to honor these contributions and celebrate the rich cultural traditions of our Hispanic-American community. Hispanic Americans have helped establish America as a place of freedom and opportunity, and their contributions … [read more]

America's farmers and ranchers are good stewards of our land, providing a healthy, safe, and abundant food supply for our country and for people around the world. During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we pay tribute to our farmers and ranchers and their families for their contributions to our … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the reporting functions of the President under subsections (h) and (j) of section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 … [read more]

Education is a fundamental part of achieving the American dream, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) help ensure that every student has the opportunity to pursue a quality education. During Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we underscore our commitment to these distinguished institutions in their efforts to provide … [read more]

During this year's National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, we honor the thousands of victims who died in the brutal and ruthless attacks in New York City, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. Our Nation remembers with gratitude the firefighters, police officers, first responders, and ordinary citizens … [read more]

September 11, 2001, was a defining moment in American history. On that terrible day, our Nation saw the face of evil as 19 men barbarously attacked us and wantonly murdered people of many races, nationalities, and creeds. On Patriot Day, we remember the innocent victims, and we pay tribute to … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the function of the President under the heading “Economic Support Fund” in the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public … [read more]

National Preparedness Month is an opportunity to raise awareness about the importance of emergency preparedness and to encourage all Americans to better prepare their homes and communities for emergencies. Protecting America's homeland and citizens is the shared responsibility of the entire Nation. Individuals can prepare themselves and their families for … [read more]

During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we recognize the vital contributions of the brave men and women who serve our great Nation, and we pay tribute to the employers who support them. The courageous men and women of the National Guard and Reserve are fighting a … [read more]

Minority Enterprise Development Week is a chance to highlight the accomplishments of minority business owners and underscore our commitment to strengthening minority businesses and helping these entrepreneurs succeed. Minority business owners have made our Nation stronger. Our thriving and resilient economy is the envy of the world, and minority business … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month provides an opportunity to underscore our commitment to stopping alcohol and drug abuse before it starts and to helping citizens in need overcome addiction and rebuild their lives. Alcohol and drug addiction can ruin lives and devastate families. We must continue working toward … [read more]

On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we celebrate the anniversary of our Nation's Constitution and honor the Framers who created the landmark document that continues to guide our Nation. In the summer of 1787, delegates convened in Philadelphia to create “a more perfect Union” and craft … [read more]

National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to fighting ovarian cancer and to finding a cure for this deadly disease. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in our country, and the risk of developing it increases with age … [read more]

During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to winning the battle against prostate cancer and raising awareness of the risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this disease. All men can develop prostate cancer, yet studies have shown that risk increases with age. Although the exact cause of … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

On Women's Equality Day, we commemorate the adoption of the 19th Amendment to our Constitution and the strong leadership of extraordinary women who have made America a more perfect Union by advancing women's suffrage. At the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, a group of visionaries gathered to proclaim the ideas … [read more]

On the anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), we celebrate our progress towards an America where individuals with disabilities are recognized for their talents and contributions to our society. We also underscore our commitment to extend the full liberties and freedoms of our great country to all Americans. … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of property of certain persons associated with the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to … [read more]

Pursuant to section 579 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102)(the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in furtherance of the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that $5 million in Economic Support Funds appropriated under title II of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 1314(c)(2) of the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 (Public Law 110-28)(the “Act”), I hereby waive the requirements of section 1314(c)(1) for … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Lady Bird Johnson, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on the day of her interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of that Act that $1.8 million in prior year Independent … [read more]

On Parents' Day, America honors our mothers and fathers for their extraordinary devotion and for the great sacrifices they make to provide a hopeful and promising future for their children. The guidance and unconditional love of parents help create a nurturing environment so children can grow and reach their full … [read more]

Liberty is the path to lasting peace and the unalienable right of every man, woman, and child. During Captive Nations Week, we underscore our commitment to protecting human rights, advancing democracy and freedom, and ending tyranny across the globe. Expanding freedom is a moral imperative, and today more people are … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 534(j) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (the “Act”)(Public Law 109-102), as carried forward under the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5)(the “Continuing Resolution”), … [read more]

Pursuant to section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618), as amended (the “Act”), I determine that a waiver by Executive Order of the application of subsections (a) and (b) of section 402 of the Act with respect to Turkmenistan will substantially promote the objectives of section … [read more]

WHEREAS Lewis Libby was convicted in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in the case United States v. Libby , Crim. No. 05-394 (RBW), for which a sentence of 30 months' imprisonment, 2 years' supervised release, a fine of $250,000, and a special assessment of $400 … [read more]

In order to foster democratic institutions in Lebanon, to help the Lebanese people preserve their sovereignty and achieve their aspirations for democracy and regional stability, and to end the sponsorship of terrorism in Lebanon, it is in the interest of the United States to restrict the international travel, and to … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”)(19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject to competitive … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the reporting function conferred upon the President by section 9003(d)(3) of title 5, United States Code. You are … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of Defense the functions of the President under section 1035 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 550(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (FOAA)(Public Law 109-102), as amended by the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”), blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action in response to the unusual … [read more]

On Father's Day, we reflect on the many ways that fathers contribute to the lives of their children with spoken words and unspoken kindness. Fathers are one of the most important influences in the lives of children, and their unconditional love is an indispensable anchor of certainty and strength. By … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under sections 1211(b), 1213(b), and 1226(c) of the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 40106(b) and for the purpose of promoting peace and security in Lebanon, I hereby determine that the prohibition of transportation services to Lebanon established by Presidential Determination 85-14 of July 1, 1985, as amended by Presidential Determination 92-41 of … [read more]

The American Flag represents freedom and has been an enduring symbol of our Nation's ideals since the earliest days of our Nation. Wherever it flies, we are reminded of America's unity and in the great cause of liberty and justice for all. Two hundred and thirty years ago, the Second … [read more]

Today's children are tomorrow's leaders, and our Nation has a responsibility to ensure that they develop the character and skills needed to succeed. On National Child's Day, we underscore our commitment to our children and pledge to provide them with the care, protection, and education they deserve. Children are great … [read more]

During June, we recognize Caribbean Americans and celebrate the many ways they contribute to our Nation. Generations of Caribbean Americans have helped shape the spirit and character of our country. These individuals are justly proud of their Caribbean roots, and they enrich the American experience by sharing their traditions, history, … [read more]

Owning a home is part of the American dream, and National Homeownership Month is an opportunity to encourage our citizens to explore the benefits of owning a home. Owning a home provides a source of security and stability for many of our citizens. My Administration is committed to fostering an … [read more]

Our Nation benefits from the oceans that contain precious natural treasures, carry much of our trade, and provide us with food and recreational opportunities. During National Oceans Month, we celebrate these benefits, and we underscore our commitment to being good stewards of the oceans. Since the release of my Ocean … [read more]

During Black Music Month, we recognize the outstanding contributions that African-American singers, composers, and musicians have made to our country, and we express our appreciation for the extraordinary music that has enriched our Nation. The music of African-American musicians has helped shape our national character and become an important part … [read more]

During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the rich blessings of our Nation's natural beauty, and we renew our commitment to protecting our environment so that we can leave our children and grandchildren a healthy and flourishing land. This month is also an opportunity to pay tribute to those whose hard … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Each year, millions of Americans living in coastal areas are faced with the hazards of hurricanes. As hurricane season approaches, National Hurricane Preparedness Week provides an opportunity to raise awareness of steps that can be taken to help protect our citizens, and their communities and property. Hurricanes can be devastatingly … [read more]

World trade is essential to promoting global economic growth, development, freedom, and prosperity. During World Trade Week, we underscore our commitment to free and fair trade and acknowledge the benefits of open markets for our citizens and for people around the globe. Trade creates wealth and opportunities, and United States … [read more]

America has a proud maritime history, and the United States Merchant Marine has played a vital role in helping meet our country's economic and national security needs. On National Maritime Day, we honor merchant mariners for their dedication to promoting commerce and protecting our freedom. During times of peace, the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby determine it necessary for the purposes … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

On Memorial Day, Americans pause with solemn gratitude and deep respect for all our fallen service men and women who have given their lives for our country and our freedom. Through the generations, the courageous and selfless patriots of our Armed Forces have secured our liberty and borne its great … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Our Nation's transportation infrastructure is vital to our security, competitiveness, and prosperity and is critical to the everyday lives of our citizens. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we salute those in the transportation industry who work to help keep our Nation safe and moving. America … [read more]

Millions of Americans take advantage of and participate in the special beauty of our Nation's waterways. During National Safe Boating Week, we renew our commitment to raising awareness about the importance of making safe and sound boating decisions on the water. America's rivers, lakes, and oceans are wonderful places for … [read more]

In every American community, committed law enforcement officers watch over our neighborhoods and work to make our Nation a safer, more peaceful place. As we observe Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, we honor the men and women who serve the cause of justice, and we pay tribute to … [read more]

America's military spouses inspire our Nation with their sense of duty and deep devotion to our country. On Military Spouse Day, we honor the husbands and wives of those who wear the uniform of the Armed Forces of the United States. The husbands and wives of our service members have … [read more]

Motherhood is one of the most cherished and valued roles in our society. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these dedicated women who give unconditional love and guidance to their children. A mother's work requires extraordinary patience and compassion, and her example influences the formation of young lives. President … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338 in which I declared a national emergency authorizing the blocking of property of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 40(g) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby: • Determine and certify that the transaction, encompassing U.S. Government-funded transfers and commercial … [read more]

The faith and hard work of Jewish Americans have played an integral role in shaping the cultural fabric of America. During Jewish American Heritage Month, we celebrate the vital contributions of Jewish Americans to our Nation. Throughout our history, Jewish Americans have contributed to the strength of our country and … [read more]

America was founded by patriots who risked their lives to bring freedom to our Nation. Today, our citizens are grateful for our Founding Fathers and confident in the principles that lead us forward. On Loyalty Day, we celebrate the blessings of freedom and remember our responsibility to continue our legacy … [read more]

National Physical Fitness and Sports Month is an opportunity to educate Americans about the importance of healthy habits and regular physical activity. During this annual observance, we renew our commitment to helping keep our citizens physically active, and we recognize the value of incorporating exercise and sports into our daily … [read more]

During Older Americans Month, we pay tribute to our senior citizens for the many ways they strengthen our Nation. Our country is blessed by their compassionate acts, the wisdom of their experiences, and the patriotism they demonstrate. This year's theme, “Older Americans: Making Choices for a Healthier Future,” underscores the … [read more]

Our Nation is built upon the rule of law and guided by our founding promise of freedom, equality, and justice for all. Law Day is an opportunity to celebrate the Constitution and the laws that protect our rights and liberties and to recognize our responsibility as citizens to uphold the … [read more]

During Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, we honor the many contributions citizens of Asian and Pacific Island ancestry have made to our great land. The millions of Americans who trace their origins to nations in the Asian/Pacific region have enriched America. The entrepreneurship and innovation of Asian/Pacific Americans have strengthened our … [read more]

Across our country, charter schools are providing quality education for America's students. During National Charter Schools Week, we recognize the important contributions of charter schools and underscore our commitment to ensuring that all children receive the education they need to lead lives of purpose and success. Charter schools are public … [read more]

Americans are fortunate to live in a land that eliminated malaria decades ago. Today, our country helps fight this disease in Africa, because we believe in the timeless truth: To whom much is given, much is required. On Malaria Awareness Day, we renew our commitment to helping combat malaria in … [read more]

National Crime Victims' Rights Week is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to protecting the rights of crime victims and to recognize those who bring hope and healing to these individuals and their families. During this week, we especially remember and mourn the victims of the senseless acts of violence … [read more]

Americans take great pride in our country's natural beauty, and our Nation is blessed to have a park system of more than 80 million acres that belongs to us all. During National Park Week, we underscore our dedication to conserving these national treasures, and we pay tribute to the dedicated … [read more]

During Small Business Week, we honor small business owners and workers for their important role in ensuring that America remains the economic leader of the world. Every day, our Nation's small businesses help enhance the lives of our citizens and lead the way in an economy distinguished by low unemployment, … [read more]

On Dutch-American Friendship Day, we celebrate our longtime friendship with the Kingdom of the Netherlands and honor the many Dutch Americans who have made significant contributions to our country. Our close partnership with the Netherlands dates back to the founding of our Nation, and it remains among our oldest continuous … [read more]

A prayerful spirit has always been an important part of our national character, and it is a force that has guided the American people, given us strength, and sustained us in moments of joy and in times of challenge. On this National Day of Prayer, we acknowledge God's grace and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007, Public Law 110-5, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national … [read more]

Our Nation grieves with those who have lost loved ones at Virginia Tech. We hold the victims in our hearts. We lift them up in our prayers, and we ask a loving God to comfort those who are suffering. As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless … [read more]

Each year, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) teaches millions of children across our country how to resist drugs and violence. On National D.A.R.E. Day, we honor the individuals who help our Nation's young people avoid the dangers of substance abuse and become productive citizens. For more than two decades, D.A.R.E. … [read more]

On Thomas Jefferson Day, we commemorate the birthday of a monumental figure whose place in our Nation's history will always be cherished. Thomas Jefferson was a scholar, statesman, author, architect, and patriot, and today we celebrate his many accomplishments and lasting legacy. Thomas Jefferson continues to capture our imagination because … [read more]

During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the spirit of service in America and honor those who demonstrate the great character of our country through acts of kindness, generosity, and compassion. Throughout the history of America, volunteers and civic organizations have helped extend the blessings of liberty and opportunity to our … [read more]

Four centuries ago, after a long journey, a small group of colonists stepped boldly onto the shores of the New World and established the first permanent English settlement in North America. During the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, America honors the early pioneers whose epic of endurance and courage started the … [read more]

Each year on Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we underscore our commitment to supporting the citizens in the Pan American community, strengthening democracy in the Western Hemisphere, and advancing the cause of peace worldwide. In 1890, the International Union of American Republics was established to promote cooperation … [read more]

The men and women of the United States Armed Forces have made great sacrifices to defend our Nation. They have triumphed over brutal enemies, liberated continents, and answered the prayers of millions around the globe. On National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, we honor the brave individuals who put … [read more]

Cancer Control Month is an opportunity to educate all Americans about cancer, to raise awareness about treatments, and to renew our commitment to fighting this deadly disease. Through developments in medical science, we continue to make advances in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Yet millions of our citizens continue … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Korea. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Panama. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

All Americans share a responsibility to protect our Nation's children. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to prevent child abuse and neglect and to work to enable our children to realize their full potential. Childhood is a formative time, and abuse can have devastating long-term effects … [read more]

Donating organs, marrow, and tissue is a kind and compassionate act that can protect and enhance the precious gift of life. During National Donate Life Month, we recognize the generosity of donors and raise awareness of the importance of donating. In recent years, there has been great progress in this … [read more]

A future of hope and opportunity in America requires that all our children develop the knowledge and character they need in life. On Education and Sharing Day, we recognize our responsibility to ensure that our young people have the foundation necessary to lead lives rich in purpose and fulfillment. Education … [read more]

The United States and Greece share a long friendship built on common values and an abiding love for freedom. On Greek Independence Day, we underscore the warm ties between our countries, recognize the Greek Americans who enrich our society, and commemorate the anniversary of modern Greece. The ancient Greeks entrusted … [read more]

1. Section 5002 of the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 (Division D, Title V of Public Law 109-432)(the “HOPE Act”), which amends the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (Title II of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, Public Law 106-200)(CBERA), provides that preferential tariff treatment … [read more]

In the 45 years since the first National Poison Prevention Week was proclaimed by President John F. Kennedy, many lives have been saved from unintentional poisoning through awareness efforts across our country. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to the safety of our fellow citizens and to guarding against accidental … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Pursuant to section 490(b)(1)(A) of the Foreign Assistance Act, I hereby determine that the top five exporting and importing countries of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in 2005 (Belgium, China, Germany, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom) have cooperated fully with the United States … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United … [read more]

WHEREAS Proclamation 8031 of June 15, 2006, established the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument; NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2 of the Act … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under section 821 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (22 U.S.C. 6301) are assigned … [read more]

The American Red Cross demonstrates the power of human compassion and embodies the capacity for kindness and generosity of this great Nation. This month, we honor the men and women of the American Red Cross who exhibit the spirit and character of America by serving others in need. Since its … [read more]

Throughout our history, the vision and determination of women have strengthened and transformed America. As we celebrate Women's History Month, we recognize the vital contributions women have made to our country. The strong leadership of extraordinary women has altered our Nation's history. Sojourner Truth, Alice Stone Blackwell, and Julia Ward … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

Across our Nation, millions of Americans suffer from eye diseases and vision loss. During Save Your Vision Week, we reinforce the importance of proper eye care and raise awareness about how to protect and prolong healthy vision. By taking simple preventative steps such as wearing sunglasses and using protective goggles … [read more]

The friendship between Ireland and the United States has deep roots, and Irish Americans have played an integral role in making our country a place of hope and opportunity. During Irish-American Heritage Month, we recognize the vital contributions of Irish Americans to our Nation. Since our founding, Irish immigrants have … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2360) (the “Act”), I hereby determine it necessary for the purposes of that Act that up to $86.362 million in … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted pursuant to section 603 of the Act, regarding noncompliance by the Palestine Liberation … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Chad has entered into an agreement with the United States pursuant to Article … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

Two hundred seventy-five years after the birth of George Washington, we honor the life and legacy of a surveyor from Virginia who became Commander of the Continental Army, a major force at the Constitutional Convention, and the first President of the United States of America. Remembered by the Congress … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345,et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . During any period when the United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1019 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109-364) (the “Act”), I hereby assign to the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345,et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . During any period when the Director … [read more]

During National Consumer Protection Week, citizens are urged to learn more about the risks of fraud and identity theft and take precautions to protect themselves from these crimes. Americans can help prevent fraud and identity theft by becoming informed consumers. The Federal Trade Commission suggests that individuals safeguard personal information … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, claiming hundreds of thousands of lives each year. During American Heart Month, we renew our commitment to fighting cardiovascular disease by increasing public awareness of this deadly disease and understanding of how it can be prevented. Today, millions … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 556 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year … [read more]

African Americans have been an integral part of America for generations, and our Nation is stronger because of their contributions. During National African American History Month, we honor the achievements of African Americans and recognize our continued responsibility to strive for equality for all our citizens. With grace and determination, … [read more]

The great strength of our Nation is found in the heroic kindness, courage, and self-sacrifice of the American people. Every day, individuals show the good heart of our country by volunteering to help make someone's life better. Since 2002, the USA Freedom Corps has provided access to volunteer opportunities for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under sections 6(a), 6(b), and 6(f) of the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of … [read more]

America was founded on the principle that we are all endowed by our Creator with the right to life and that every individual has dignity and worth. National Sanctity of Human Life Day helps foster a culture of life and reinforces our commitment to building a compassionate society that respects … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

In accordance with section 102(b) (1) of the Arms Export Control Act and section 129 of the Atomic Energy Act, I hereby determine that North Korea, a non-nuclear-weapon state, detonated a nuclear explosive device on October 9, 2006. The relevant agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government are hereby … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a) (1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, Americans honor the memory of a man who stirred the conscience of a Nation. We also recommit ourselves to the dream to which Dr. King devoted his life—an America where the dignity of every person is respected; where people are judged not … [read more]

On Religious Freedom Day, we commemorate the passage of the 1786 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, authored by Thomas Jefferson, and we celebrate the First Amendment's protection of religious freedom. Across the centuries, people have come to America seeking to worship the Almighty freely. Today, our citizens profess many different … [read more]

By virtue of authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, the functions of the President under section 1014(o)(1) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Public Law … [read more]

TO THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES: It is my sad duty to announce officially the death of Gerald R. Ford, the thirty-eighth President of the United States, on December 26, 2006. President Ford was a great man who devoted the best years of his life to serving the United … [read more]

As a further mark of respect to the memory of Gerald R. Ford, the thirty-eighth President of the United States, NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, in honor … [read more]

1. Vietnam has demonstrated a strong desire to build a friendly and cooperative relationship with the United States and has been found to be in full compliance with the freedom of emigration requirements under title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”)(19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200)(AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA (19 U.S.C. … [read more]

1. During the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (the “Uruguay Round”), a group of major trading countries agreed to reciprocal elimination of tariffs on certain pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates, and that participants in this agreement would revise periodically the list of products subject to duty-free treatment. On December 13, … [read more]

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