A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
187 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2006

During National Mentoring Month, we honor the caring individuals across our Nation who are committed to helping the next generation of Americans reach their full potential. Mentors help teach important skills that are necessary for a healthy, successful life and help shape the character of our young people. They instill … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 721(k) of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2170(k)), for … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1303 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (Public Law 108-375) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that waiving the conditions described in section 1305 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-65), as … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $5.215 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for the purpose of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., and 3 U.S.C. 301, I hereby: 1. determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the … [read more]

America has a rich history of exploration and discovery, marked by scientific and technological achievements that have transformed the world. On Wright Brothers Day, we remember two aviation pioneers from Ohio whose big dreams and extraordinary accomplishments helped change the course of human history. On December 17, 1903, Orville and … [read more]

Peace and justice prevail when people are free to speak, assemble, and worship, when their rights are protected, and when governments are accountable to their citizens. These blessings of freedom are guaranteed for Americans in the Bill of Rights of our Constitution. During Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Comoros and Saint Kitts and Nevis have each entered into an agreement with … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (the “Act”), Public Law 109-102, I hereby: • Determine that it is important to the national interests of the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when the Attorney General, the … [read more]

Each year, thousands of Americans lose their lives in accidents involving drunk and drugged driving. During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we continue our efforts to promote awareness of the dangers of impaired driving and encourage fellow citizens to never drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs. … [read more]

Sixty-five years ago, more than 2,400 Americans lost their lives in a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we think of those who died on December 7, 1941, and honor all those who sacrificed for our liberty during World War II. On that peaceful Sunday … [read more]

HIV/AIDS is a global health crisis and a constant struggle for many of our families, friends, and neighbors. On World AIDS Day, we underscore our commitment to fight the AIDS pandemic with compassion and decisive action. America leads the world in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and through the Emergency Plan … [read more]

Methamphetamine abuse shatters families and threatens our communities. On National Methamphetamine Awareness Day, we underscore the dangers of methamphetamine and reaffirm our collective responsibility to combat all forms of drug abuse. Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive drug that dramatically affects users' minds and bodies. Chronic use can lead to violent … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (section 721), 50 U.S.C. App. 2170, - Section 1. Findings. - I hereby make the following findings: - (1) there … [read more]

Families are indispensable to a stable and free society. They pass along the traditions and principles that help make America compassionate, decent, and hopeful. During National Family Week, we honor our families and recognize their contributions to keeping our country strong. Today's fast-changing world needs the anchor of values and … [read more]

As Americans gather with family and friends to celebrate Thanksgiving Day, we give thanks for the many ways that our Nation and our people have been blessed. The Thanksgiving tradition dates back to the earliest days of our society, celebrated in decisive moments in our history and in quiet times … [read more]

Good stewardship of the environment is a personal responsibility and an important public value, and on America Recycles Day, we highlight the many benefits of recycling. By taking steps to reduce waste and re-use materials, we can save precious natural resources, enhance the beauty of our communities, and add to … [read more]

Throughout our history, America's farmers and ranchers have demonstrated the values of determination, faith, love of family, and patriotism. The contributions of America's farmers and ranchers help keep our economy moving forward, and during National Farm-City Week we underscore the vital partnership between America's rural and urban industries. By providing … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “2002 Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that it is … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, I hereby determine that: (1) as a result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of assistance under Chapter 6 of Part II … [read more]

On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down by the desire of a people to be free. On World Freedom Day, we commemorate this historic event and reflect on liberty's power to change lives and raise societies. After decades of oppression, the fall of the Berlin Wall brought … [read more]

Consistent with section 1006(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)) (the “Act”), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of the exports of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) and goods that compete with imports into Vietnam. I further determine … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we encourage the adoption of young people in need, and we honor the adoptive and foster families who have offered children a loving and supportive home. The best of America is reflected in the many citizens who have adopted children as their own. Mothers and fathers … [read more]

During National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, we renew our resolve in the fight against this devastating disease, and we take time to remember the loved ones taken from us by Alzheimer's. We also recognize the patients and family members who are affected by it, and we extend our gratitude to … [read more]

During National American Indian Heritage Month, we honor the generations of American Indians and Alaska Natives who have added to the character of our Nation. This month is an opportunity to celebrate their many accomplishments and their rich ancestry and traditions. America is blessed by the character and strength of … [read more]

National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to raise awareness of risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a chronic illness affecting nearly 21 million Americans of all ages and backgrounds. It can cause blindness, nontraumatic amputations, kidney disease, and increased risk of heart disease and stroke. … [read more]

Our country is blessed to have millions of compassionate citizens who bring love and support to family members and friends who are chronically ill, elderly, or disabled. During National Family Caregivers Month, we recognize these kind individuals who give of their hearts, resources, and energy to assist loved ones in … [read more]

Americans demonstrate the great compassion of our country by caring for those in need. During National Hospice Month, we recognize hospice caregivers for their dedication to providing comfort and peace to individuals in their last days and helping build a society that values the life and dignity of every person. … [read more]

Through the generations, America's men and women in uniform have defeated tyrants, liberated continents, and set a standard of courage and idealism for the entire world. On Veterans Day, our Nation pays tribute to those who have proudly served in our Armed Forces. To protect the Nation they love, our … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: • Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe, not to provide certain funding for those countries' … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2007 … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On October 24, 1945, the United Nations was formed to promote peace and international security, further economic and social development, protect fundamental human dignity, and recognize the equal rights of men and women. On United Nations Day, we recognize the establishment of this important organization and underscore our commitment to … [read more]

On the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution, we celebrate the Hungarians who defied an empire to demand their liberty, we recognize the friendship between the United States and Hungary, and we reaffirm our shared desire to spread freedom to people around the world. The story of Hungarian democracy represents … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

America's strength is found in the spirit and character of our people. During National Character Counts Week, we renew our commitment to instilling values in our young people and to encouraging all Americans to remember the importance of good character. As the primary teachers and examples of character, parents help … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we take time to appreciate the natural splendor of our country's forests and acknowledge the importance of these woodlands to our economic and environmental vitality. It is also an opportunity to renew our commitment to conserving our natural resources and to using them responsibly. Our … [read more]

Our Nation is moving toward remarkable technological advances that will make energy cleaner, more abundant, and more affordable for our citizens. During National Energy Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to a more secure energy future. My Administration is working to improve energy efficiency and conservation, increase our domestic supply … [read more]

Our Nation believes in the promise of all our citizens, and we must work to ensure that the opportunities of America are more accessible to every person. Many Americans who are blind or visually impaired use white canes to enable them to enjoy greater mobility, engage in productive work, and … [read more]

On General Pulaski Memorial Day, we remember Casimir Pulaski, a Polish-born hero of the American Revolution who fought and died for the freedom and independence our country enjoys today. General Casimir Pulaski entered into a campaign against tyranny in Poland in 1768, bravely fighting for the freedom of his native … [read more]

For 60 years, the National School Lunch Program has contributed to the health and well-being of America's youth. National School Lunch Week highlights the many achievements of the National School Lunch Program and the importance of helping children develop good nutrition habits. Eating healthy foods and maintaining an active lifestyle … [read more]

More than five centuries ago, Christopher Columbus boldly set out on a long and challenging journey across the Atlantic that led the way for exploration of the Americas. On Columbus Day, we celebrate the historic voyages of the Italian explorer and honor his life, heritage, and lasting legacy. Columbus' brave … [read more]

Leif Erikson Day honors a great son of Iceland and grandson of Norway who became one of the first Europeans known to reach North America. This day is also an opportunity to celebrate the generations of Nordic Americans who have contributed to our country and strengthened the ties that forever … [read more]

During Fire Prevention Week, we underscore our commitment to advancing fire safety and awareness, and we honor the brave firefighters and volunteers who work to protect our lives, homes, and communities. Thousands of injuries and deaths occur each year as a result of fires, and Americans have a shared responsibility … [read more]

During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to advancing the fight against breast cancer and bringing hope to those affected by this deadly disease. - Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among American women, and both men and women should be aware that … [read more]

During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we pay tribute to the accomplishments of the men and women with disabilities whose work helps keep America's economy strong, and we underscore our commitment to ensuring equal employment opportunity for all of our citizens. - Our country has made great progress to ensure … [read more]

Throughout our history, the spirit and hard work of German Americans have been an important part of the cultural fabric of our Nation. On German-American Day, we celebrate German Americans and their many contributions to the character of our country. Germans were among the first to settle in this great … [read more]

America's young people enjoy a future of hope and promise, and we must be committed to supporting them through each opportunity and challenge they face ahead. Each year on Child Health Day, we emphasize the importance of keeping our children safe, encouraging them to practice healthy habits, and educating and … [read more]

Domestic violence has no place in our society, and we have a moral obligation to help prevent it. The terrible tragedies that result from it destroy lives and insult the dignity of women, men, and children. National Domestic Violence Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to bringing … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, FY03 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, … [read more]

Families instill values, shape character, and are the foundation of a hopeful society. On Family Day, we celebrate the rich traditions of family life and emphasize the importance of stable and loving relationships between children and parents. Families are a source of inspiration and strength, and they provide hope and … [read more]

Since America's founding, every generation has produced patriots willing to sacrifice for our great Nation. Many of these proud sons and daughters have given everything for our freedom, and America has mourned the loss of every life. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we pay special tribute to the mothers of … [read more]

In times of war or crisis, the citizen-soldiers of our National Guard and Reserve are ready and willing to answer the call of duty. During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we express our deep gratitude to these brave men and women and to the employers who … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

Generations of farmers and ranchers have strengthened our Nation and enriched our communities by providing us with food, raw materials, and energy. National Farm Safety and Health Week is an opportunity to celebrate their contributions to America and raise awareness about potential hazards these workers and their families face. This … [read more]

The ability to read is the gateway to educational excellence and a key to success in any democratic society. On Literacy Day, we recognize the vital importance of literacy to our Nation and affirm our commitment to helping improve the lives of the men, women, and children in America and … [read more]

Americans are a diverse people, yet we are bound by common principles that teach us what it means to be American citizens. During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many contributions of Hispanic Americans to our country. Through hard work, faith in God, and a deep love of family, … [read more]

Americans are united by the principles embodied in the United States Constitution. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we celebrate the establishment of the United States Constitution and honor the Framers of this groundbreaking document. In 1787, the Framers of the Constitution met in Philadelphia and … [read more]

As a Nation, we look to our service men and women as examples of courage and sacrifice. When our country and the world have needed brave Americans to advance the cause of freedom, our men and women in uniform have proudly stepped forward and selflessly endured hardships to defend liberty. … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2005 (70 Fed. Reg. 54607), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading with the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2006. I hereby determine … [read more]

Education is the cornerstone of a prosperous and hopeful Nation. By providing a quality education, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) help students achieve their dreams and realize the promise of America. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we recognize the significant contributions of HBCUs and underscore our … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 40(g) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register … [read more]

On the fifth anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001, we recall the fire and horror at the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a Pennsylvania field. America will always remember the thousands of innocent lives taken by the enemies of freedom that morning. In … [read more]

This year, we mark the fifth anniversary of the brutal and ruthless terrorist attacks carried out against our Nation on September 11, 2001. We will always remember the thousands of lives lost, and the innocent men, women, and children forever changed by those acts of evil. During these National Days … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

Pursuant to Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $13.5 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month provides an opportunity to raise awareness of risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this deadly disease. Our Nation is committed to fighting ovarian cancer, finding its cure, and providing hope and healing to those who are affected by it. While ovarian cancer remains one of … [read more]

The United States continues to move forward in its fight against cancer, yet an estimated 27,000 American sons, fathers, brothers, and husbands will be lost to prostate cancer this year. As we observe National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to defeating prostate cancer by raising awareness about … [read more]

Alcohol and drug abuse disrupts families, threatens the safety of our neighborhoods, and ruins the lives of countless men, women, and youth. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we recognize the damaging effects of substance abuse and renew our support for individuals battling to overcome addiction. The theme … [read more]

One year ago, a vast coastline of towns and communities was virtually destroyed; one of America's great cities was submerged; and many lives were lost in one of the worst natural disasters in our Nation's history. On this National Day of Remembrance of Hurricane Katrina, we honor those who did … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Colombia. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register. … [read more]

During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we celebrate the outstanding progress made by minority business owners, recognize their important contributions to our Nation's vibrant economy, and emphasize our commitment to helping them succeed. Throughout our country, minority entrepreneurs strengthen our economic growth and keep our Nation moving forward. As Ronald Reagan … [read more]

The ratification of our Constitution's 19th Amendment on August 26, 1920, marked a turning point for America as women were guaranteed the right to vote. On Women's Equality Day, we celebrate this milestone and pay tribute to the inspiring individuals who stepped forward and asked our Nation to live up … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress, and to arrange for … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August 17, … [read more]

On the 50th anniversary of our national motto, “In God We Trust,” we reflect on these words that guide millions of Americans, recognize the blessings of the Creator, and offer our thanks for His great gift of liberty. From its earliest days, the United States has been a Nation of … [read more]

1. On September 14, 2004, the United States entered into the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA). The USBFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USBFTA Implementation Act”) (Public Law 109-169, 119 Stat. 3581) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). … [read more]

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has helped fulfill the promise of America for millions of individuals living with disabilities. The anniversary of this landmark legislation is an important opportunity to celebrate our progress over the last 16 years and the many contributions individuals with disabilities make to our country. … [read more]

The best hope for peace is the expansion of freedom throughout the world. During Captive Nations Week, we reaffirm our commitment to advancing liberty, protecting human rights, and helping people realize the great promise of democracy. In proclaiming the first Captive Nations Week in 1959, President Dwight Eisenhower said that … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons and prohibiting the importation of certain goods from Liberia, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1321 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), I hereby assign to you the functions … [read more]

As a child's first teachers, mentors, and role models, parents shape the character of those who will help to build the future of our Nation. On Parents' Day, we pay tribute to the hard work and sacrifice of the millions of devoted parents who provide guidance, support, and unconditional love … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted on the date hereof, pursuant to section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (Agreement) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Agreement countries). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject to … [read more]

On July 4, 1776, our Nation's Founders declared “That these United Colonies are, and of Right, ought to be free and Independent States.” This declaration marked a great milestone in the history of human freedom. On the 230th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, we pay tribute … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2311), and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2753), I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Kingdom of Swaziland will strengthen the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2311), and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2753), I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Kingdom of Swaziland will strengthen the … [read more]

In the Pacific Ocean northwest of the principal islands of Hawaii lies an approximately 1,200 nautical mile stretch of coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals. The area, including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, the Midway National Wildlife Refuge, the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, and the Battle … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the ``order''), blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

From our Nation's earliest days, Old Glory has stood for America's strength, unity, and liberty. During Flag Day and National Flag Week, we honor this enduring American symbol and celebrate the hope and ideals that it embodies. In 1777, the Second Continental Congress established the flag of a young Nation, … [read more]

By offering guidance, support, and unconditional love, a father is one of the most important influences in a child's life. On Father's Day, we honor our fathers and celebrate the special bond between a father and a child. Fathers play a significant role in shaping the character of their children … [read more]

During Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we celebrate the great contributions of Caribbean Americans to the fabric of our Nation, and we pay tribute to the common culture and bonds of friendship that unite the United States and the Caribbean countries. Our Nation has thrived as a country of immigrants, and we … [read more]

During National Oceans Week, we recognize the importance of the oceans to our national heritage, economy, and security and reaffirm our commitment to protecting them through wise stewardship and sensible management. The magnificent beauty of the oceans is a blessing to our country and the world. The oceans also sustain … [read more]

A hopeful society ensures that its children are provided with the knowledge, skills, and opportunities to succeed. On National Child's Day, we reaffirm our commitment to America's children and recognize the power that each of us has to make a difference in a young person's life. The character of a … [read more]

Pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and consistent with section 6(j)(4)(B) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, Public Law 96-72, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)), and as continued in effect by Executive Order 13222 of … [read more]

African-American musicians have added to the rich culture of our country and of countries around the world. During Black Music Month, we recognize the African-American artists who have enhanced our lives and created some of our Nation's most treasured art forms. Throughout history, African-American artists have produced music with the … [read more]

Owning a home is an important part of the American dream. During National Homeownership Month, we raise awareness of homeownership and encourage more Americans to consider the benefits of owning their own home. Nearly 70 percent of Americans enjoy the satisfaction of owning their own home, and my Administration continues … [read more]

Pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and consistent with section 6(j)(4)(B) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, Public Law 96-72, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)), and as continued in effect by Executive Order 13222 of … [read more]

Great Outdoors Month is an opportunity to celebrate and experience America's natural splendor and renew our commitment to conserve our air, water, and land. During this month, we also honor the dedicated men and women who volunteer to help protect our natural resources. Americans live amid many wonders of nature. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under: (1) subsection 1203(d) of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under the heading “Peacekeeping Operations” in chapter 2 of title II in Division A of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations … [read more]

During National Hurricane Preparedness Week, private organizations, public officials, and government agencies will highlight the preparations necessary for the new hurricane season that begins on June 1. Last year, a record number of hurricanes caused unprecedented devastation across an entire region of our country. Our citizens along the Gulf Coast … [read more]

The United States Merchant Marine plays an important role in ensuring our national security and strengthening our economy. As we celebrate National Maritime Day and the 70th anniversary of the Merchant Marine Act, we pay tribute to merchant mariners and their faithful service to our Nation. Since 1775, merchant mariners … [read more]

Free and fair trade is a powerful engine for growth and job creation in the United States and in countries throughout the world. World Trade Week is an opportunity to celebrate the benefits of trade for people everywhere. America is a great force for prosperity, and our country's economic and … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Throughout our history, the men and women who have worn the uniform of the United States have placed the security of our Nation before their own safety. America will be forever grateful for their service and sacrifice. On Memorial Day, we honor those who have paid the ultimate price for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under section 590 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 1 of Public Law 109-159 (119 Stat. 2955). You … [read more]

On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we thank all those who contribute to a sound transportation infrastructure that keeps our country moving, advances our economic growth, and strengthens our national defense. President Dwight D. Eisenhower recognized the importance of having the world's most efficient and reliable … [read more]

By providing an opportunity to experience our Nation's scenic waterways, recreational boating is one of our country's most popular activities. During National Safe Boating Week, we underscore the importance of taking safety precautions before going out on the water and encourage all Americans to make responsible decisions while boating. This … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of G. V. Sonny Montgomery, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on the day of his interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at … [read more]

Every day, our Nation's dedicated law enforcement officers put themselves at risk to keep their fellow Americans safe. As we observe Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, we pay tribute to the courageous men and women who have lost their lives protecting us, and we honor all those who … [read more]

In light of the importance to the United States of fostering democratic institutions in Belarus in order to help the Belarusian people achieve their aspirations for democracy and to help complete the transformation to a Europe whole, free, and at peace and given the suppression of human rights and democracy … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under section 2110(c) of the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005 … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $28 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to support unexpected urgent … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338 in which I declared a national emergency authorizing the blocking of property of … [read more]

On Mother's Day, we honor our mothers and pay tribute to their devoted work and selfless gift of love. America's mothers are women of determination and vision. They serve as caregivers and guides, helping to build the foundation for our children's success and nurturing them as they grow and explore … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, our citizens have prayed and come together before God to offer Him gratitude, reflect on His will, seek His aid, and respond to His grace. On this National Day of Prayer, we thank God for His many blessings and His care of our country. God has … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the function of the President under the heading “Economic Support Fund” in the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 13(b)(3)(A) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (15 U.S.C. … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under section 3002 of the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of 2004 (title III of Public Law 108-429) … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code and section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (Public Law 109-163), I direct the Secretary of Defense to conduct or … [read more]

Older Americans represent the finest qualities of our Nation. During Older Americans Month, we honor our older citizens, celebrate their many accomplishments, and learn from their experiences. Across our country, older Americans are demonstrating personal strength and compassion and are redefining the experience of aging. They are leading active lives, … [read more]

America's legal system is central to protecting the constitutional principles on which our Nation was founded. As we observe Law Day, we celebrate our heritage of freedom, justice, and equality under the law. This year's Law Day theme, “Liberty Under Law: Separate Branches, Balanced Powers,” honors the wisdom of the … [read more]

Our Nation is blessed and bound together by a creed of freedom and equality that is entrusted to all Americans. Preserving the ideals of our founding requires the service and sacrifice of every generation, and on Loyalty Day, we celebrate the gift of liberty and remember our own obligation to … [read more]

During Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, we honor and celebrate the millions of Asian/Pacific Americans whose contributions have helped make America a strong, vibrant, and free society. Asian/Pacific Americans represent many nations and ethnicities, each with its own culture, heritage, language, and experience. Across our country, this diverse group of people … [read more]

Education is the gateway to a brighter future for our children and our Nation. During National Charter Schools Week, we celebrate charter schools' commitment to academic achievement, accountability, and innovation. We recognize the vital role charter schools play in fostering an America where children have the knowledge and skills they … [read more]

When the first Jewish settlers came to this land, they sought a place of promise where they could practice their faith in freedom and live in liberty. During Jewish American Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich history of the Jewish people in America and honor the great contributions they have … [read more]

During National Crime Victims' Rights Week, we underscore our commitment to safeguarding the rights of the victims of crime and their families, and we honor those who bring them hope and comfort. Behind each crime victim there is a story of trauma, a story of suffering, and a story of … [read more]

For 50 years, the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports has helped individuals, schools, communities, businesses, and organizations promote healthy lifestyles. During this year's National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we celebrate the Council's 50th anniversary and underscore our Nation's strong commitment to health, physical activity, and fitness. President … [read more]

Throughout our country, volunteers make America stronger and better by reaching out to help their neighbors in need. During National Volunteer Week, we recognize the millions of individuals who dedicate their time, talents, and energy to making a difference in the lives of others and reaffirm our commitment to supporting … [read more]

In America's national parks, the magnificent beauty of our country and important examples of our Nation's cultural heritage are preserved and made available to Americans and visitors from all over the world. Each year, as we observe National Park Week, we underscore our commitment to conserve our natural and historical … [read more]

Today, we celebrate the birthday of Thomas Jefferson. Few individuals have shaped the course of human events as much as this proud son of Virginia. His achievements are extraordinary: Governor of Virginia, author of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, Secretary of State, third President of the United States, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., I hereby order that: Order of Succession . During any period when both the Commissioner of Social … [read more]

During Pan American Day and Pan American Week, we honor the commitment to liberty and common values we share with our Pan American neighbors. The love of freedom has deep roots in the Pan American community. Not long after the United States won independence from Britain, patriots throughout the Americas … [read more]

On National D.A.R.E. Day, we honor the dedicated police officers and all those involved in the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program and underscore our commitment to helping young people say no to drugs and violence. By promoting positive youth development, D.A.R.E. programs across our country are helping our children … [read more]

A quality education is the cornerstone of a hopeful tomorrow for all our children. Education and Sharing Day highlights our strong support for our young people as they pursue lives of learning, prepare to become responsible leaders, and work to reach their full potential. On Education and Sharing Day, we … [read more]

In every generation, America's Armed Forces have answered the call to duty with dedication and valor. On National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, we pay tribute to the brave patriots of the United States military who endured captivity because of war. These heroes sacrificed their personal liberty to secure … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 1227(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year … [read more]

1. Ukraine has demonstrated a strong desire to build a friendly and cooperative relationship with the United States and has been found to be in full compliance with the freedom of emigration requirements under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (Agreement) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Agreement countries). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free … [read more]

During National Cancer Control Month, we continue the fight against cancer and work to reduce the risk of this deadly disease among our citizens. Cancer survival rates are increasing, with approximately 10 million survivors in the United States. New understanding of diseases, better diagnostic tools, and innovative treatments help provide … [read more]

Our society has a responsibility to protect our children and help them thrive. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we underscore our strong commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect and to ensuring that all children have the opportunity to grow up in safe and nurturing environments. Parents hold the … [read more]

National Donate Life Month is an opportunity to celebrate the tremendous generosity of those who have saved lives by becoming organ, tissue, marrow, and blood donors and to encourage more Americans to follow their fine example. Last year, more than 28,000 organ transplants took place in the United States—more than … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (Agreement) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement … [read more]

The entrepreneurial spirit of America is robust and strong, and small businesses are thriving throughout our great Nation. The opportunity to own a business is an important part of the American dream. During Small Business Week, we celebrate small business owners and employees who are willing to take risks and … [read more]

On Greek Independence Day, we celebrate the proud heritage of Greek Americans, recognize the longstanding friendship between the United States and Greece, and reaffirm our shared desire to spread freedom to people around the world. Greece is the birthplace of democratic principles, and the story of modern Greek independence demonstrates … [read more]

National Poison Prevention Week helps raise awareness about the dangers of poison exposure. Our Nation has made great progress in reducing the number of poison-related deaths and injuries since the first National Poison Prevention Week in 1962, yet poisonings remain a threat to the health and safety of many Americans. … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including sections 620A and 621 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2371 and 2381), section 113 in Division J of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 (Public … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 534(j) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (the “Act”) (Public Law 109-102), and Public Law 107-57, as amended, I hereby determine and certify, with respect to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 202 and other relevant provisions of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (Public Law 107-327, as amended) and section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318, I … [read more]

In Lower Manhattan, at the corners of Duane and Elk Streets, lies an undeveloped parcel of approximately 15,000 square feet that constitutes a remaining portion of New York City's early African Burial Ground. The site is part of an approximately 7-acre National Historic Landmark established on April 19, 1993. From … [read more]

For generations, women across our great land have helped make our country stronger and better. They have improved our communities and played a vital role in achieving justice and equal rights for all our citizens. During Women's History Month, we celebrate the many contributions women make to our society. At … [read more]

Many Americans suffer from diseases and disorders of the eye that can affect their vision and quality of life. During Save Your Vision Week, we highlight how basic eye care and protection can help citizens maintain and enjoy healthy eyesight. An important part of ensuring physical well-being includes making healthy … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, Americans have worked together to care for those in need. The work of the American Red Cross exemplifies this tradition and reflects the good heart of our country. This year during American Red Cross Month, we recognize this organization for its 125 years of faithful service … [read more]

The histories of Ireland and the United States are deeply intertwined. For generations, the sons and daughters of Ireland have come to America with a spirit of determination and optimism that has strengthened our Nation's character and enriched our history. During Irish-American Heritage Month, we celebrate Irish Americans and the … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency blocking the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

1. Section 502 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2462), authorizes the President to designate countries as beneficiary developing countries, and to designate any beneficiary developing country as a least-developed beneficiary developing country, for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program. … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Coretta Scott King, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on February 7, 2006, the day of her interment, the flag of the United States shall be … [read more]

During National Consumer Protection Week, we highlight the importance of consumer education in the ongoing fight against fraud and encourage consumers to make wise decisions. Each year, nearly 25 million adults are victims of consumer fraud. These crimes damage lives and shake consumer confidence. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and … [read more]

More than 70 million Americans live with some form of heart disease, and this disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. During American Heart Month, we reinforce our commitment to fighting heart disease by promoting awareness about its risks, its causes, and the ways to reduce … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President contained within section 401(c) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1641(c)), to provide … [read more]

Americans enjoy great liberty and prosperity, and with these blessings comes an obligation to reach out to those in need. Over the past 4 years, USA Freedom Corps has worked to rally America's armies of compassion and bring together individuals and organizations committed to volunteer service. More than 65 million … [read more]

As we celebrate National African American History Month, we recognize the many contributions of African Americans to our country and reinforce our commitment to be a Nation of opportunity and hope for every citizen. Throughout our history, African Americans have courageously worn our Nation's uniform while defending peace and liberty … [read more]

Our Nation was founded on the belief that every human being has rights, dignity, and value. On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, we underscore our commitment to building a culture of life where all individuals are welcomed in life and protected in law. America is making great strides in … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

As we observe the 20th anniversary of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we reflect on the history of civil rights in America and honor Dr. King for the power of his intellect, the truth of his words, and the example of his courage. Dr. King created a powerful … [read more]

The right to religious freedom is a foundation of America. On Religious Freedom Day, our Nation celebrates the passage of the 1786 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom and the protection of religious freedom in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Our Founding Fathers knew the importance of freedom … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Peru. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1303 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (Public Law 108-375) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that waiving the conditions described in section 1305 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-65), as … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(2)(the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory and resources of the … [read more]

Pursuant to section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2451), I have determined the action I will take with respect to the affirmative determination of the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) regarding imports of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (steel pipe) from China (Investigation … [read more]

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