A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
192 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2003

Consistent with the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 202 and other relevant provisions of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (Public Law 107-327) and section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318, I hereby direct … [read more]

1. On June 6, 2003, the United States entered into the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (USCFTA). The Congress approved the USCFTA in section 101(a) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USCFTA Act”) (Public Law 108-77, 117 Stat. 909) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. Section 105 … [read more]

1. On May 6, 2003, the President entered into the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). The USSFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USSFTA Act”) (Public Law 108-78, 117 Stat. 948) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. Section … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1306 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Public Law 108-136) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that waiving the conditions described in section 1305 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-65) … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 620(q) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2370) and section 512 of the FY 2002 and 2003 Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Acts, (Public Law 107-115 and Public Law 108-7), I hereby determine … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the FY 2003 Foreign Relations Authorization Act (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted herewith, consistent with section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance by the PLO and … [read more]

A spirit of exploration and discovery has been a part of the American character since our founding days. Orville and Wilbur Wright exemplified this spirit when they made the dream of human flight a reality on December 17, 1903. On Wright Brothers Day, we honor the vision of these bicycle … [read more]

America's founders dedicated this country to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. During Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, we recognize the advances we have made expanding freedom, democracy, and individual rights in this country and around the world. America has helped bring liberty … [read more]

Last year, more than 17,000 people were killed and 258,000 more were injured in alcohol-related crashes. Such accidents cause unnecessary suffering, loss of life, and expense. During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we continue our efforts to stop impaired driving and improve the safety of our roads during … [read more]

More than 60 years ago, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt told Americans that December 7, 1941, was “a date which will live in infamy.” On that morning, America was attacked without warning and without provocation. More than 2,400 Americans died and 1,100 were wounded. Our country was changed forever. Following that … [read more]

1. Proclamation 7529 of March 5, 2002, implemented actions (safeguard measures) of a type described in section 203(a)(3)(A) and (B) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2253(a)(3)(A) and (B)) (the “Trade Act”), with respect to imports of certain flat steel (consisting of slabs, plate, hot-rolled steel, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 632 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2392), I hereby direct as follows: 1. The funds appropriated to the President under the heading Operating Expenses … [read more]

The HIV/AIDS pandemic presents one of the greatest medical and social challenges of our time. On World AIDS Day, members of the global community come together to demonstrate our shared commitment to turning the tide against the spread of HIV/AIDS, bringing hope and healing to those who are suffering, and … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that it is important to the national interest of the United States to waive … [read more]

As Americans gather during Thanksgiving week, we honor our families, and we recognize the family as a source of help, hope, and stability for our citizens and for our country. Strong families make our Nation better. They teach our children values and help them become responsible citizens. We must encourage … [read more]

Each year on Thanksgiving, we gather with family and friends to thank God for the many blessings He has given us, and we ask God to continue to guide and watch over our country. Almost 400 years ago, after surviving their first winter at Plymouth, the Pilgrims celebrated a harvest … [read more]

During National Farm-City Week, Americans honor the hard work of the men and women who earn a living from the land, and we recognize the importance of their partnerships with urban communities. Our farmers and ranchers face many challenges, including weather, crop disease, and uncertain pricing. Yet with hard work … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1306 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-314), I hereby certify that waiving the restrictions contained in subsection (d) of section 1203 of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (22 U.S.C. 5952), as amended, … [read more]

During National American Indian Heritage Month, we honor the accomplishments and culture of American Indians and Alaska Natives and recognize their contributions to our country. To help educate Americans and illustrate the important role of these native people to our Nation, the new National Museum of the American Indian will … [read more]

From before the American Revolution, to the Civil War, to the wars in Vietnam and the Persian Gulf, our National Guard and Reserve have served our country with distinction. Today, our National Guard and Reserve forces are active on every front in the War on Terror. During National Employer Support … [read more]

To preserve America's majestic beauty, we must conserve our natural resources and practice responsible stewardship. On America Recycles Day, we reaffirm our commitment to conservation and recognize the increase in recycling in the last two decades. Twenty-five years ago, only one community in the United States had a curbside recycling … [read more]

The willingness of America's veterans to sacrifice for our country has earned them our lasting gratitude. On this, our Nation's 50th annual Veterans Day observance, we celebrate and honor the patriots who have fought to protect the democratic ideals that are the foundation of our country. When the armistice ending … [read more]

Every year, tens of thousands of American families answer the call to adopt a child. During National Adoption Month, we recognize America's adoptive and foster families. We also commit to helping all of our children, including those waiting in foster care, find safe, permanent, and loving homes. On November 22, … [read more]

Fourteen years ago, freedom-loving people tore down the Berlin Wall and began to set a nation free from Communist oppression. On World Freedom Day, the United States joins with other countries in commemorating that historic day. The United States is committed to liberty, freedom, and the universal struggle for human … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Consistent with section 6(b) (1) (A) of the Sudan Peace Act (Public Law 107-245), I hereby determine and certify that the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement are negotiating in good faith and that negotiations should continue. You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress … [read more]

Consistent with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2004 is … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby determine that: Antigua and Barbuda, Botswana, East Timor, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda have each entered … [read more]

Recent studies estimate that 4.5 million Americans are affected by Alzheimer's disease, and that more than 13 million will be affected by the middle of this century. As we seek to increase our understanding of the causes, symptoms, and effects of this disease, we recognize the victims and the family … [read more]

Almost 17 million Americans have diabetes, a disease that prevents the body from using its own insulin to break down sugars. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. During National Diabetes Month, we recognize advancements in preventing, treating, and detecting this disease, and we renew … [read more]

Millions of Americans make extraordinary efforts every day to care for loved ones who are elderly, chronically ill, or disabled. These caregivers make many sacrifices to improve the lives of their loved ones. Through their love, dedication, and courage, these compassionate children, parents, spouses, grandparents, and extended family members strengthen … [read more]

Hospice care plays an important role in American medicine by easing a patient's suffering while reaffirming individual dignity in a familiar, comfortable environment. Across our Nation, hospice care providers are assisting in hospitals, nursing homes, and private residences, offering physical, emotional, and spiritual support to patients who often have a … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, President Clinton declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Pornography can have debilitating effects on communities, marriages, families, and children. During Protection From Pornography Week, we commit to take steps to confront the dangers of pornography. The effects of pornography are particularly pernicious with respect to children. The recent enactment of the PROTECT Act of 2003 strengthens child pornography … [read more]

The United Nations is a vital international arena for countries to cooperate in pursuit of political, economic, and social freedoms. Founded by 51 Member countries after World War II, the organization has grown through the years to include 191 Member States. On United Nations Day, we celebrate the organization's founding … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me under section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003, Public Law 108-7, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

Our forests are a source of pride for our Nation. They benefit many Americans who depend on healthy forests for their livelihoods and quality of life. As we celebrate National Forest Products Week, we recognize the importance of our forest resources. We remain committed to sound, commonsense, forest management. Beyond … [read more]

Many of our society's most cherished values, such as equal treatment for fellow citizens and respect for the law, depend in practice on individual character. During National Character Counts Week, we recognize the importance that good character has played in our history, celebrate the great character exhibited by our citizens, … [read more]

I find that it is in the paramount interest of the United States to exempt the United States Air Force's operating location near Groom Lake, Nevada, the subject of litigation in Frost v. Perry (D. Nev. CV-S-94-714-PMP), from any applicable requirement for the disclosure to unauthorized persons of classified information … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby designate the Republic of the Philippines as a major non-NATO ally of the United States for the purposes of the Act and the Arms Export Control Act. … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Colombia has entered into an agreement with the United States pursuant to Article … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency consistent with to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions … [read more]

Consistent with section 2005 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-206; 22 U.S.C. 7421et seq .), concerning the participation of members of the Armed Forces of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. … [read more]

Every day, millions of Americans who are blind or visually impaired use the white cane as they travel, attend school, or work. The white cane remains one of the most important and reliable tools for people who are blind or visually impaired. It increases the mobility of these citizens, facilitating … [read more]

Over the last 57 years, the National School Lunch Program has provided more than 187 billion meals to young people across our country. During National School Lunch Week, we recognize the importance that good nutrition plays in the health of our children and in the development of good eating habits … [read more]

When Christopher Columbus set out from Spain in August 1492, he launched an era of discovery and exploration that continues today. On Columbus Day, we honor this Italian explorer's courage and vision, and recognize his four journeys to the “New World.” One of the first known celebrations of Christopher Columbus' … [read more]

Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski sacrificed his life on October 11, 1779, for America's independence and the universal cause of freedom. His bravery in supporting the American Revolutionary War is an inspiration to individuals around the world who pursue peace and freedom for all. Growing up near Warsaw, Casimir Pulaski knew … [read more]

Traveling across the Atlantic as the first Nordic to lead an expedition to North America, Leif Erikson showed great courage in the face of danger. His actions marked the beginning of a longstanding exchange of people, ideas, and innovations between North America and the Nordic nations of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, … [read more]

Across our country, domestic violence traumatizes victims, endangers children, harms families, and threatens communities. According to the most recent report from the Department of Justice, there were almost 700,000 incidents of domestic violence in 2001. Approximately one-third of women who are murdered each year are killed by their current or … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (FAA), I hereby determine it is necessary for the purposes of the FAA that the $25 million in FY 2003 International Organizations … [read more]

Parents, teachers, and mentors play a critical role in helping children learn to make healthy choices in life. On Child Health Day, we emphasize our commitment to teaching our children the benefits of good health. The safety and well-being of our children is a priority shared by all Americans. As … [read more]

Breast cancer touches the lives of many Americans, either directly or through the diagnosis of a family member or friend. We have made considerable progress in diagnosing this disease and improving treatments, but we have not ended it. While overall death rates are declining, breast cancer remains the second leading … [read more]

For Americans with disabilities, employment is vital to independence, empowerment, and quality of life. During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we recognize the many contributions citizens with disabilities make to our society, and we reaffirm our commitment to helping them achieve their full inclusion in our workforce. Today, Americans with … [read more]

More than 1.7 million fires strike American homes, parks, and businesses each year. This devastation costs lives, causes injuries, ruins property, and disrupts businesses. While fires are powerful and destructive, many fires are preventable. During Fire Prevention Week, we join with our Nation's first responders to help prevent fires and … [read more]

Marriage is a sacred institution, and its protection is essential to the continued strength of our society. Marriage Protection Week provides an opportunity to focus our efforts on preserving the sanctity of marriage and on building strong and healthy marriages in America. Marriage is a union between a man and … [read more]

German-American Day celebrates more than 300 years of German immigration to our shores, beginning with the arrival of 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld on October 6, 1683. Seeking a new life of freedom and opportunity, these immigrants settled in Pennsylvania and founded Germantown near the city of Philadelphia. On this … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby determine that: (1) Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, and Honduras have each entered into an agreement … [read more]

America's more than 3 million minority-owned businesses represent one of the fastest-growing segments of our Nation's economy. Through skill, hard work, and determination, these businesses are strengthening our Nation and our economy. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize these businesses, their owners, and their employees for their commitment to … [read more]

Almost half of the land in the United States is used for agricultural production, and our Nation depends on our hard-working farm and ranch families for food, fiber, and the good stewardship of our environment. As we celebrate National Farm Safety and Health Week, we give thanks for their dedication, … [read more]

As members of America's Armed Forces now protect our country by engaging the enemies of freedom in Iraq, in Afghanistan, and on other fronts in the war against terrorism, they carry on a noble legacy. Today, Americans and millions around the world enjoy freedom because of the service and sacrifice … [read more]

I have today submitted a report to the Congress setting forth a Memorandum of Understanding between the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security governing the implementation of section 428 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-296). The Memorandum of Understanding will allow the Departments … [read more]

America's diversity has always been a great strength of our Nation. As we celebrate National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize and applaud the extraordinary accomplishments of Hispanic Americans. From America's beginning, Hispanic Americans have served as leaders in business, government, law, science, athletics, the arts, and many other fields. In … [read more]

The sacrifice and service of America's veterans, including those who became prisoners of war or who went missing in action, have preserved freedom for America and brought freedom to millions around the world. On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor the extraordinary courage of the Americans who have been prisoners … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Consistent with section 5(c) of the Anglo-Irish Agreement Support Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-415), as amended by section 2811 of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105-277), I hereby certify that I am satisfied that: (1) the Board of the International … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 562 of Division E of the Act, I hereby determine that it is vital to the national security interests of the United States to waive the restriction in that section and provide up to $3.72 million in funds made available under … [read more]

Consistent with section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “FRAA”), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug-transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, … [read more]

In the summer of 1787, representatives from the States met in Philadelphia to establish a new Constitution that would unite America. They intended the Constitution to achieve six purposes: “to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and … [read more]

Historically Black Colleges and Universities have a distinguished past and an important future in providing higher education for Americans throughout our country. As we celebrate National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we recognize these institutions for their dedication to academic excellence. And we reaffirm our Nation's commitment to equal … [read more]

The success of small businesses in America reflects the innovation, determination, and hard work of the American people. During Small Business Week, we celebrate the entrepreneurs and business people who create goods, services, and jobs, and bring opportunity and economic prosperity to communities throughout our country. We also reaffirm our … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2002 (67 Fed. Reg. 58681), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading with the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2003. I hereby determine … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386) (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act, with respect to Burma, Cuba, Liberia, North Korea, and Sudan, not to provide certain funding for those countries' … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, and the Pentagon, and the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions conferred upon the President under the heading “Loan Guarantees to Israel” in chapter 5 … [read more]

As we approach the second anniversary of September 11, 2001, we remember all that we lost as Americans and recognize all that we have witnessed about the character of America. During these National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, we honor those who were killed and their families, and we ask … [read more]

Two years ago, more than 3,000 innocent people lost their lives when a calm September morning was shattered by terrorists driven by hatred and destruction. On that day, and in its aftermath, we saw the greatness of America in the bravery of victims; in the heroism of first responders who … [read more]

Consistent with section 2(b)(4) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that it is in the national interest for the Export-Import Bank to guarantee, insure, or extend credit, or participate in the extension of credit in support of United States … [read more]

Alcohol addiction and drug addiction continue to challenge our Nation. Addiction to alcohol or drugs destroys family ties, friendship, ambition, and moral conviction, and reduces the richness of life to a single destructive desire. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we seek to remind all Americans, particularly those … [read more]

It is estimated that more than 25,000 American women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer this year and that more than 14,000 will die from this disease. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we seek to increase understanding of ovarian cancer and the importance of early detection, and to recognize … [read more]

Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer among men in the United States. This year alone, it is estimated that more than 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed and that nearly 29,000 men will die from this disease. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, … [read more]

Children thrive in loving families where they are taught, nurtured, and comforted. By spending time with our children and stressing the importance of making the right choices, parents and other family members help them develop into confident, successful individuals. Families can help secure a healthy tomorrow for their children by … [read more]

1. On April 22, 1985, the United States entered into the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel (FTA), which the Congress approved in the United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act of 1985 … [read more]

On March 28, 2001, I issued a memorandum for the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) directing that certain conditions be placed on assistance for family planning activities provided to foreign nongovernmental organizations by USAID. Because family planning grants are awarded by the Department of State … [read more]

The 19th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified on August 26, 1920, guaranteed the right to vote for American women. Women's Equality Day commemorates this constitutional amendment and is an opportunity for citizens across our country to honor those who took part in the long and difficult struggle for women's suffrage, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. section 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the FY 2003 Foreign Relations Authorization Act (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted herewith, consistent with section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance by the PLO and … [read more]

Pursuant to Presidential Determination 98-7 of December 5, 1997, Turkmenistan was found to be not in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection 402(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2432(a) and 2439(a)) (the “Act”) or paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection 409(a) of the … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Djibouti, Mauritius, and Zambia have each entered into an … [read more]

Consistent with section (2)(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $26 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for a contribution to … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, and renewed on August 14, 2002, must … [read more]

On August 2, 1990, by Executive Order 12722, President Bush declared a national emergency with respect to Iraq pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Today, America mourns the loss of one of its great treasures. A gifted comedian who entertained audiences for decades with his unique talents, Bob Hope brought joy and laughter to our Nation. By tirelessly entertaining America's troops, he demonstrated his extraordinary love of country and devotion to the men and … [read more]

Children are a daily reminder of the blessings and responsibilities of life and a source of joy, pride, and fulfillment. Parents, stepparents, adoptive parents, and foster parents have the important responsibility of providing for, protecting, nurturing, teaching, and loving their children. On Parents' Day, we honor America's mothers and fathers … [read more]

When North Korean troops invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, the United States took immediate action to defend the freedom of a people unjustly attacked. Leading a coalition of 20 other countries, American and South Korean troops fought to advance liberty and opportunity and to overcome cruelty and repression. … [read more]

During Captive Nations Week, first declared in 1959 as a statement against the continuing Communist domination of Eastern Europe, America expresses its dedication to freedom and democracy. While many countries around the world uphold these principles, millions of people still live under regimes that violate their citizens' rights daily. In … [read more]

Consistent with section 206(c) of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-327 of December 4, 2002), you are hereby authorized and directed to transmit the attached report on implementation of the strategies for meeting the immediate and long-term security needs of Afghanistan to the appropriate committees of … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby determine that: (1) Gabon, the Gambia, Mongolia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Tajikistan have each entered into an agreement … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) the authority vested in the President by section 204(a) of the Notification … [read more]

Throughout our history, members of the United States Armed Forces have inspired our citizens with their bravery, honor, and dedication. Our Nation continues to be grateful for the courageous men and women who have demonstrated extraordinary patriotism in choosing to help defend America and the cause of freedom. For the … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of James Strom Thurmond, the longest serving member and former President pro tempore of the United States Senate, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United … [read more]

1. Pursuant to sections 501, 503(a)(1)(A), and 503(c)(1) of title V of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461, 2463(a)(1)(A), and 2463(c)(1)), the President may designate or withdraw designation of specified articles provided for in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) … [read more]

For centuries, black artists have created or inspired distinctively American musical styles. During Black Music Month, we celebrate the ways that African-American music has helped shape American society and reflect the character of our Nation, and we recognize the pioneers who spearheaded these important musical forms. Throughout history, African-American music … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Homeownership is more than just a symbol of the American Dream; it is an important part of our way of life. Core American values of individuality, thrift, responsibility, and self-reliance are embodied in homeownership. I am committed to helping more families know the security and sense of pride that comes … [read more]

Fatherhood is one of life's most challenging yet fulfilling endeavors. On Father's Day, we honor America's fathers and express our appreciation for all they do to help build a strong foundation for our children and our Nation. We also reaffirm our commitment to supporting fathers and encouraging responsible fatherhood in … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “Order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereinafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

Each year, we set aside June 14 to commemorate the day in 1777 when the Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as the official flag of our Republic. With this act, the Congress declared that we were one Nation, under one flag, united for the cause of liberty and … [read more]

On National Child's Day, we celebrate the future of our Nation and the promise of America's youth. As a Nation, as parents, and as community members, we have a responsibility to build a secure and nurturing society so that our children have the opportunity to grow, learn, work, and succeed. … [read more]

On National Missing Children's Day, we join with families, law enforcement officials, and child advocates to highlight our commitment to stopping the abduction and exploitation of children. During this year's observance, we celebrate the progress we have made in safeguarding children, and we renew our dedication to protecting our most … [read more]

On Memorial Day, America undertakes its solemn duty to remember the sacred list of brave Americans who have sacrificed their lives for the cause of freedom and the security of our Nation. By honoring these proud Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen lost throughout our country's history, we renew … [read more]

Today, as in the past, America depends on our maritime services to help ensure our security, promote our prosperity, and advance the universal hope of freedom. We honor the service and proud history of our merchant mariners and also recognize their important contributions in strengthening our economy. For generations, merchant … [read more]

Trade expands prosperity, helps raise millions from poverty, and is an engine of economic growth within our Nation and around the world. Trade injects new energy and vitality into the global economy by fostering the exchange of ideas and innovations among people around the world. Free and open trade also … [read more]

Destructive winds, tornadoes, torrential rains, ocean water storm surges, and flooding make hurricanes one of nature's most extreme hazards. As hurricane season approaches, Americans who live in hurricane-prone areas must prepare to help ensure their safety and minimize damage to their communities. Hurricane season officially begins June 1 and continues … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 1503 and 1504 of the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Act, 2003, Public Law 108-11 (the “Act”), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby: (1) suspend the application … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including by section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and services to … [read more]

Every day across the country, from our largest cities to our quietest crossroads, peace officers stand watch over our citizens, selflessly risking their lives to protect individuals, families, neighborhoods, and property against crime. This week, we salute these men and women for their courage, commitment, and service, and we honor … [read more]

America's transportation system takes us where we need to go, keeps our economy moving, and strengthens our Nation's security. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we celebrate how modern transportation has transformed the world and recognize the men and women who have contributed to its progress. … [read more]

As summer approaches, Americans are looking forward to enjoying our Nation's rivers, lakes, and oceans. National statistics show that recreational boating is safer today than ever before, with the number of boating fatalities declining even as the number of boats increases. However, lives continue to be lost needlessly, and we … [read more]

On Mother's Day, we honor the dedicated and caring women who are devoted to their families and committed to improving the world their children will inherit. Our first President, George Washington, said that his mother was “the most beautiful woman I ever saw. All I am I owe to my … [read more]

The extraordinary heritage of Jewish Americans reflects the strength and spirit of our Nation. Their deep family and community ties and strong religious traditions exemplify America's cultural diversity. Jewish Heritage Week provides an opportunity to recognize the contributions of Jewish Americans to our country and to celebrate their commitment to … [read more]

The provisions under the heading “Tibet Negotiations” in section 613(b) of the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002, as contained in the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228), state that a report must be prepared 180 days following enactment, and every 12 months thereafter, concerning the steps … [read more]

The functions of the President under the heading “Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund” in the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003 (Public Law 108-11), including with respect to apportionment, reimbursement, consultation, transfer of funds, retransfer of funds, and acceptance and crediting of contributions, are assigned to the Director of the … [read more]

America is strengthened by the rich cultural diversity of our people, and we are blessed to be a Nation that welcomes individuals of all races, religions, and cultural backgrounds. The values and traditions of the Asian/Pacific-American community—love of family, entrepreneurship, excellence in education, and community service—have strengthened us as a … [read more]

Advances in medicine, public health, science, and technology are keeping Americans healthier and adding years to our lives. As our population of senior citizens continues to grow, our Nation remains dedicated to fulfilling our promises to these valuable members of our society. This year's observance of Older Americans Month, “What … [read more]

America was founded on the ideals of liberty and equality for all, and the Framers of the Constitution created three branches of the national Government to uphold these principles. The third branch, the Judicial, is responsible for administering justice fairly and impartially. On Law Day, we recognize the achievements of … [read more]

To be an American is not a matter of blood or birth. Our citizens are bound by ideals that represent the hope of all mankind: that all men are created equal, endowed with unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. On Loyalty Day, we reaffirm our allegiance … [read more]

We are a Nation whose people turn to prayer in times of our most heartfelt sorrow and our moments of greatest joy. On this National Day of Prayer, first called for more than 225 years ago by the Continental Congress, we come together to thank God for our Nation's many … [read more]

Charter schools provide many children with a first-class education, and they have gained national recognition for their accountability standards, innovative programs, and success with young people. The high expectations they set and the opportunities for development they create help students attending charter schools realize their potential and achieve their dreams. … [read more]

Volunteering is central to the American character and is a fundamental expression of responsible citizenship. From our Nation's earliest days, people came together to do whatever was needed for the public good—from raising barns and providing mutual security to organizing educational activities and caring for their neighbors. Though our country … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003, Public Law 108-7, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

Pursuant to section 6(b)(1)(A) of the Sudan Peace Act (Public Law 107-245), I hereby determine and certify that the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement are negotiating in good faith and that negotiations should continue. You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress of this determination … [read more]

Pursuant to section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2451), I have determined the action I will take with respect to the affirmative determination of the United States International Trade Commission (USITC Investigation TA-421-2) regarding imports of certain steel wire garment hangers from China. After … [read more]

America is a land of majestic beauty, and we are blessed with immeasurable natural wealth. Americans are united in the belief that we must preserve this treasured heritage and conserve these natural resources for the benefit and enjoyment of the American people. As a Nation, we can be proud of … [read more]

The Fair Housing Act was signed on April 11, 1968, just one week after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. This landmark bill, Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, resulted from the hard work and leadership of Dr. King and others in the civil rights … [read more]

1. You are authorized for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to exercise authority under Public Law 85-804, as amended (50 U.S.C. 1431et seq .), to the same extent and subject to the same conditions and limitations as the head of a department or agency listed in section … [read more]

Our Nation takes great pride in the unity of the Pan American community. We enjoy strong bonds of friendship with our neighbors throughout the Western Hemisphere, and the almost 33 million citizens of Latin American and Caribbean descent who are a part of the rich cultural diversity of our country. … [read more]

As a Nation, we must work to ensure that all our children have the opportunity to reach their full potential and achieve their dreams. On Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2003, we renew our commitment to providing quality education and to teaching our children the values that prepare them for … [read more]

America's former prisoners of war (POWs) are national heroes whose service to our country will never be forgotten. These brave men and women who fought for America and endured cruelties and deprivation as prisoners of war helped to protect our Nation, liberated millions of people from the threats of tyranny … [read more]

Drugs destroy the hopes, dreams, and the health of our children, and we must continue to work to reduce drug use among America's young people. Today we honor Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.), the most widely recognized substance abuse and violence prevention curriculum in America. As we celebrate the 20th … [read more]

Crime brings trauma, pain, and insecurity into the lives of too many Americans each year. As we work to reduce crime and protect the rights of the accused, we must take equal care to protect the rights of their victims. During National Crime Victims' Rights Week, we remember those who … [read more]

Advances in medical research and technology are helping our citizens to live longer and better lives. An important aspect of these improvements is transplant technology. Today, up to 50 lives can be saved or enhanced by just one organ and tissue donor. During National Donate Life Month, we honor living … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 507 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2003, Division E of the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 (Public Law 108-7), I hereby determine that the provision of assistance or other financing for Iraq is important to the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 637(b)(2) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, I hereby certify that East Timor has established an independent armed forces; and that the provision to East Timor of military assistance … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

Our Nation has an important responsibility to create a caring environment in which our children can flourish and reach their full potential. As we observe the 20th anniversary of National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we recognize the significant progress we have made to increase the safety and security of our … [read more]

Pursuant to section (2)(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $22 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy Toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: You are hereby authorized and … [read more]

Millions of Americans are winning the fight against cancer, but much work remains. More than 3,500 Americans are diagnosed with cancer each day, and more than 45,000 will die from the disease this month. Yet, experts believe that half of all cancer deaths are preventable. With exercise, nutrition, and healthy … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 1(b)(1) of the Pakistan Waiver Act, Public Law 107-57, I hereby determine and certify that a waiver of section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations, Division E … [read more]

After nearly 400 years of rule by the Ottomans, Greece declared its independence on March 25, 1821. Long before that, ancient Athenians created a Greek culture that valued human liberty and dignity, and modern Greeks have demonstrated that preserving freedom is a powerful motivating force. Today, on Greek Independence Day, … [read more]

More than 40 years ago, President John F. Kennedy signed into law National Poison Prevention Week. The annual observance of this week continues to help American families learn how to protect their children from accidental poisonings. Every year more than one million children under 5 years of age are exposed … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and pursuant to the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 345et seq. , I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when the Director of … [read more]

Effective upon the publication of this memorandum in theFederal Register , there is established the program relating to food for education and child nutrition authorized by subsection 3107(b) of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-171) (7 U.S.C. 17360-1). Pursuant to subsection 3107(d) of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws and Constitution of the United States, including section 202 and other relevant provisions of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (Public Law 107-327) (the “Act”) and section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318, I … [read more]

Throughout our history, Americans have been committed to helping the suffering, the disadvantaged, and those in need of help. The American Red Cross represents the compassion of our Nation in action. During American Red Cross Month, we honor this remarkable organization and recognize its proud heritage of service. For more … [read more]

From the earliest days of our Republic, America has inspired the hopes and dreams of countless individuals from around the world who have come to share in our gifts of freedom, justice, and opportunity. During Irish-American Heritage Month, we celebrate the contributions of these talented and industrious citizens and recognize … [read more]

Colorectal cancer touches the lives of many Americans. This year, it is estimated that more than 148,000 new cases of colorectal cancer will be diagnosed. More than 56,000 people may die from this disease, making it a leading cause of cancer death in our Nation. We have achieved great progress … [read more]

As our Founding Fathers worked to develop the framework of our Nation, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband: “I long to hear that you have declared an independency—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire … [read more]

Each year, the number of Americans who suffer from vision loss increases, yet half of all blindness can be prevented through early detection and treatment. During Save Your Vision Week, we renew our commitment to protecting eyesight by promoting healthy eye care and by encouraging Americans to receive routine vision … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, President Clinton declared a national emergency to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Government of Cuba of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and pursuant to the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq., I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when the Secretary of Veterans … [read more]

On the north tip of Governors Island, at the confluence of the Hudson and East Rivers, stand two fortifications that served as an outpost to protect New York City from sea attack. These two important historic objects, Castle Williams and Fort Jay, are part of a National Historic Landmark District … [read more]

Pursuant to section (2)(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $15 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), which was enacted on September 30, 2002, I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, … [read more]

Advances in medical research have significantly improved our capacity to fight heart disease by providing greater knowledge about its causes, more innovative diagnostic tools to detect and counter it, and new and improved treatments that help people survive and recover from it. Despite these advances, heart disease continues to be … [read more]

African Americans have played central roles in some of the most triumphant and courageous moments in our Nation's history. During National African American History Month, we honor the rich heritage of African Americans and pay tribute to their many contributions to our Nation. As we celebrate this year's theme, “The … [read more]

As a mark of respect for Rick Douglas Husband, William C. McCool, Laurel Blair Salton Clark, Kalpana Chawla, Michael P. Anderson, David M. Brown, and Ilan Ramon who gave their lives during the mission of STS-107 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, I hereby order, by the … [read more]

Pursuant to sections 2103(a) and 2105(a) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a Free Trade Agreement with the Government of Chile. Pursuant to section 2105(a)(1) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Pursuant to sections 2103(a) and 2105(a) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a Free Trade Agreement with the Government of Singapore. Pursuant to section 2105(a)(1) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Few technologies have become fixtures in our daily lives as quickly as computers and the Internet. Today, more than half of all Americans log on to the Internet, and that number is growing. Our access to information, entertainment, credit and banking, products, and services from every corner of the world … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority contained in Title II of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115), I hereby determine and certify that extending the waiver of section 907 of the FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-511): Accordingly, I … [read more]

1. Presidential Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993, implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (the “NAFTA”) with respect to the United States and, pursuant to the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “NAFTA Implementation Act”), incorporated in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (the “HTS”) … [read more]

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., served as a voice of conscience for our Nation, and his words and actions continue to inspire courage, humility, and compassion. As a visionary leader of the civil rights movement, Dr. King helped to advance human dignity by working peacefully to resolve racial conflict through … [read more]

Each year on January 16, we celebrate Religious Freedom Day in commemoration of the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom by the Virginia General Assembly, which occurred on this day in 1786. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, this historic law provided the inspiration and the framework for the religious … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Our Nation was built on a promise of life and liberty for all citizens. Guided by a deep respect for human dignity, our Founding Fathers worked to secure these rights for future generations, and today we continue to seek to fulfill their promise in our laws and our society. On … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 8144 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-248) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that waiving the conditions described in section 1305 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-65) … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1306 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-314), I hereby certify that waiving the restrictions contained in subsection (d) of section 1203 of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (22 U.S.C. 5952), as amended, … [read more]

On January 18, 2001, by Executive Order 13194, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sierra Leone pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions … [read more]

Pursuant to section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2451), I have determined the action I will take with respect to the affirmative determination of the United States International Trade Commission (USITC) regarding imports of pedestal actuators from China. The USITC, on the basis of … [read more]

From every corner of the world, immigrants have come to America to discover the promise of our Nation. On January 13, 1903, the first Korean immigrants to the United States arrived in Honolulu, Hawaii, on the SS Gaelic . Today, Korean Americans live throughout the United States, representing one of … [read more]

Pursuant to section 502 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2462), the President is authorized to designate countries as beneficiary developing countries, and to designate any beneficiary developing country as a least-developed beneficiary developing country, for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences … [read more]

Pursuant to section (2)(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $11 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to address unexpected urgent … [read more]

Across our great Nation, many Americans are responding to the call to service by mentoring a child in need. By offering love, guidance, and encouragement, mentors put hope in children's hearts, and help ensure that young people realize their full potential. During National Mentoring Month, we recognize the vital contributions … [read more]

On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On January 8, 1986, by Executive … [read more]

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